Abram/Abraham/Brahma/Avram/Abu-Ramu/Ibrahim Zeradust (@ 2000 – 1800 BCE). One

Adalah figure yang sangat utama dalam agama Yahudi dan Islam serta dipuja oleh beberapa orang Kristen.

Abraham dipercaya hidup sekitar 2000 SM, dan wafat pada usia 175 tahun berdasarkan Alkitab  dan sumber-sumber Muslim. Tidak ada sumber independen yang memastikan jangka hidup yang panjang ini.

Walaupun tidak ada bentuk bukti sejarah dan arkeologi keberadaannya, terdapat bukti yang cukup While

Bahwa bangsa dan wilayah-wilayah yang kita pelajari tentang keberadaan waktu sejarah ini.

Abraham adalah tokoh yang sangat penting dalam agama Yahudi karena beliau adalah bapa leluhur  bangsa Yahudi , melalui garis keturunan putera nya, Ishak, bapa dari Yakub yang kemudian menjadi “Israel”.

Abraham atau Ibrahim  juga seorang tokoh yang penting bagi orang-orang  Islam karena beliau adalah seorang nabi dari risalah Allah yang sama dengan nabi Muhammad S.A.W. dan bapa dari Ismael atau Isma’il, putera sulungnya yang Allah juga buat perjanjian dengannya. Pada hakekatnya Abraham adalah bapa leluhur kaum Muslim melalui puteranya,Ismael. Sebagaimana janji Allah, Ismael menjadi bapa leluhur dari 12 pangeran (Kej. 25: 12-17 ),dan juga seorang puteri,Mahalat (Mahlah),yang kemudian menjadi isteri Esau bin Ishak (Kej. 28:  6-9). Ismael adalah bapa leluhur dari bani Ismael,bangsa nomaden yang tinggal di Arabia utara. Bangsa Arab modern mengklaim sebagai keturunan Ismael (Isma’il). Ismael wafat pada usia 137 tahun (Kej. 25: 12-17).

Berikut adalah interpretasi kita akan kehidupan Abraham; ini tidak dilakukan secara sembarangan atau dengan maksud yang tidak baik ataupun dengan niat untuk mengibul.Ini dikerjakan melalui analisa studi kritis dan komparatif.

Sedapatnya dilacak menurut sejarah yang kita percayakan menjadi fakta tentang Abraham, pencarian kita menuntun kita ke India.

Para Bharata

Mahabharata berarti “India Raya”  yang ditulis sekitar tahun 540 – 300 SM, tetapi banyak sejarah lisan yang lebih tua, yang telah mengacu kepada Vyasa yang bijaksana. Mereka mencatat “legenda-legenda para Bharata, salah satu kelompok suku Arya”.

Untuk memahami  makna dari hal ini, harus dimengerti bahwa  Bharata bukanlah suatu bangsa. Bharat adalah kumpulan bangsa. India adalah nama modern dari daratan yang pernah disebut oleh  pribumi Bharata – bukan dalam konteks sebuah bangsa akan tetapi sebagai sekumpulan bangsa individu semi-kooperatif merdeka seperti halnya Eropa adalah sekumpulan bangsa.

Mempertimbangkan  kata Bharata; Kata ini dibentuk dari akar bahasa Sansekerta ‘Bhara’ yang mana dibawah berayun aturan vokalisasi, bisa diasumsikan bentuk ‘Ibhar’, ‘Iber’, ‘Ibhray’, ‘Ibhri’, ‘Ibri’, ‘Ibrini’ dll. Kata-kata tersebut disamakan dengan istilah ‘Ibrani’.

Selanjutnya diskusi tentang istilah ‘Ibrani’;  Arti lain dari istilah ‘Savitr’ (bentuk Sansekerta dari istilah Ibrani) adalah Brahmana. Sekarang mari kita mempertimbangkan kata ‘Brahmana’. Jika sufiks ‘mana’  dihilangkan dari kata tersebut, kemudian menjadi ‘Brah’, melalui waktu dan penggunaan akan memberikan kita kata ‘Habra’  yang lebih dekat dengan kata ‘Hebrew’ (‘Ibrani’). Juga kedua kata tersebut, ditulis tanpa huruf-huruf voka,akan masing-masing  memberikan ‘BRH’  dan ‘HBR’. Kesamaannya pun nampak sekali.

Demikian sangat menarik untuk dicatat kata Sansekerta lain, yakni ‘Vipra’ (sinonim dari ‘Brahman’) pada hubungan yang sama. Kata ‘Vipra’ menjadi ‘Ipar’ dalam bahasa Marathi sehari-hari. Sekarang saatnya mempertimbangkan kata ‘Ipar’. Kata ini bisa diasumsikan bentuk ‘Iber, Ibri, Ibhray, Ibrani’ dll, -bentuk lain dari Hebrew. Ini menuntun kita kepada kesimpulan tidak diragukan lagi bahwa orang-orang Ibrani (Hebrews) dapat dididentifikasikan dengan para Brahmana India yang telah bermigrasi dari India pada periode Weda lebih awal.

Poin yang kuat dari sebuah asal usul Brahmana-Yahudi umum adalah fakta bahwa kedua komunitas telah menjadi para pendeta pribumi dari catatan sejarah mereka pada era yang lebih awal. Hal tersebut bisa juga dilihat pada respek ini bahwa orang-orang Ibrani, seperti rekan sejawat orang India,para Brahmana, yang menganggap diri mereka sebagai ‘Umat Pilihan Tuhan’. Orang-orang Ibrani memulai pekerjaan mereka pada sejarah sebagai ‘Kerajaan Para Imam’ (Kel. 19: 6). Demikian halnya para Brahmana juga telah menjadi ‘Komunita Para Pendeta’ sejak awal sejarah mereka.

Kultus Brahm (Agama Hindu) dibawa dari Timur Tengah dan Timur Dekat oleh beberapa kelompok India yang berbeda. Sekitar tahun 1900 SM, setelah badai besar  dan gempa bumi mencabik sebagian wilayah utara India, pernah mengubah sepanjang sungai Indus dan Saraswati.

Ahli geografi klasik, Strabo memberitahukan kepada kita hanya bagaimana nyaris menggenapi keadaaan ditinggalkan Barat Laut India. “Aristobulus berkata bahwa ketika dia dikirim atas suatu misi di India, dia melihat sebuah negeri yang lebih dari seribu kota, bersama dengan pedesaan, yang telah lengang karena Indus ditelantarkan itu alas an yang wajar  ” (Strabo’s Geography, XV.I.19.)

Sungai Saraswati mongering sekitar tahun 1900 SM, membawa jalan ke relokasi besar populasi dipusatkan disekitar dan di lembah-lembah  Sindhu dan Saraswati, menyebabkan migrasi kea rah barat India. Hal tersebut seger saat ini bahwa unsur  India mulai muncul di seluruh Asia Barat, Mesir, dan pada akhirnya Yunani.

Sejarawanlah keluar dari India.  India, Kuttikhat Purushotama Chon, percaya bahwa Abraham keluar dari India. Dia menyatakan bahwa bangsa Arya, tidak dapat mengalahkan bangsa Asura (Kasta Perniagaan yang pernah menguasai Lembah Indus atau Harappa) menghabiskan bertahun-tahun perlawanan rahasia melawan bangsa Asura, seperti  merusak sistem danau irigasi raksasa mereka., menyebabkan banjir destruktif, yang Abraham dan kerabatnya  pasrah dan  berjalan ke Asia Barat. Oleh karena itu, selain keluar dari Utara India karena banjir, bangsa Arya juga memaksakan orang India kelas  saudagar,para tukang, dan terpelajar  mengungsi ke Asia Barat.

Edward Pocokce menulis India di Yunani,

“…dalam contoh ketidaksamaan mempunyai  perkara-perkara yang terjadi kegentaran dengan konsekuensi demikian besar,  sebagaimana yang mengalir dari perang relijius besar , selama bertahun-tahun, merajalela di seluruh India. Perebutan tersebut diakhiri oleh pengusiran besar manusia; banyak dari mereka mahir dalam kesenian dari peradaban awal, dan  sejumlah besar, prajurit perang sebagai profesi. Bergerak ke pegunungan Himalaya di utara,dank e Ceylon,kubu pertahanan terakhir mereka di selatan, menyeberangi Lembah Indus di barat, kaum yang tertindas ini membawa bibit keseniandan sains Eropa. Pasang surut manusia yang berkuasa yang dilampaui barier Punjab, digiring menghadap menuju kanal di Eropa dan Asia, untuk mengisi jabatan yang menguntungkan di fertilisasi moral dunia. Jarak perpindahan migrasi sangat besar. samaran nama-nama sangat sempurna, dan informasi orang Yunani begitu disengaja untuk menyesatkan, bahwa tak satupun defisiensi sejumlah pengabaian dari dasar teoritis, dan resolusi  riset independen, memberikan kemungkinan yang sangat tipis dari kesuksesan penjelasan. ”

Jika semua pengungsi tersebut adalah semata-mata warisan India, mengapa Sejarah  tidak menyebutkan mereka ?

Eksodus dari para pengungsi India kuno tidak berlangsung serentak tetapi selama periode seribu tahun atau lebih.

Bahwasanya mereka disebut sebagai orang Kassi, Het, Suriah, Asyur, Hori, Aram, Hyksos, Mittani, Amalek, Ethiopia (Atha-Yop), Fenisia, Kasdim, dan banyak lainnya. Akan tetapi kita telah salah mengajarkan bahwa menganggap mereka sebagai  etnis pribumi Asia Barat.

Buku sejarah kita juga menyebut mereka “Indo Eropa” , menyebabkan kita bertanya-tanya tentang dari mana  sebenarnya mereka berasal.

Banyak cendekiawan Kristen dan Yahudi (kebanyakan persuasi ‘Eurosentrik’) tidak  menginginkan hal itu benar bahwa 10-13 juta “India” pernah tinggal di Afghanistan, Pakistan, dan sampai jauh ke barat setengah batas Iran sekarang dan perbatasan Timur Arab Saudi sekarang. Mereka menyatakan itu adalah hanya “kebetulan” bahwa banyak sekali tempat nama dan suku di sana mempunyai nama-nama yang alkitabiah.

Ketika sejarawan lain bersikeras bahwa itu adalah kaum Muslim yang mengkristenisasikan semua suku dan tempat.

Kebenaran,walaupun demikian,sebagai sejarah sekarang mengingatkan lagi, bahwa banyak suku dan tempat   pernah mendapat  “nama Alkitabiah”  mereka berabad-abad atau bahkan bermilenium sebelum Islam bercahaya di mata nabi Muhammad S.A.W  dan berabad-abad sebelum nama-nama yang sama muncul di Timur Tengah.

Buku sejarah kita menyebut mereka sebagai “Bangsa Indo-Eropa” menyebabkan kita bertanya-tanya darimana asal mereka yang sebenarnya. Bangsa India dating mewujudkan identitas sosial mereka pada istilah-istilah golongan social atau kasta bukan pada istilah ras dan suku.

Berikut adalah sampel  kecil dari beberapa contoh yang mengejutkan :

Minoa (Ancient Greek nation)                                  =                                        Meena (Suku India Kuno)

Turbazu (Klan Palestina)                                           =                                      Turvazu (Suku India Kuno)

Kopt; Guptas (Dinasti Mesir Kuno)                         =                                 Gupta (Dinasti Penguasa India Kuno)

Saracens (Turki Kuno)                                                =         Sauresena (sebuah teritori dan rakyat India Kuno)

Arabea (Bangsa Arab)                                             = Arabi (Penduduk asli Makran, sekarang bagian Pakistan)

Mecca (Kota Suci umat Islam.)                               =                                         Makka (Ibukota Makran)

Islam (Agama Muhammad S.A.W)                          =                                            Ishalayam (Bait Allah)

Quraisy (Suku of Muhammad S.A.W)                    =                                            Kurus (Suku India Kuno)

Kabul (Kota di Israel)                                                 =                                        Kabul (Ibukota Afghanistan)

Jidda (Kota di Arab Saudi)                                        =                                       Juddha, Yuddha (Warrior)

Bashan (Wilayah Yordania)                                       =                          Bazana; Vashana (Ibukota Kuno Gujarat)

Manasye (Teritori dan suku Israel)                         =              Manasa (Danau Himalaya, dekat Gunung Meru)

Laisy (Kota di Kanaan)                                               =                                             Laisy (Kota di Afghanistan)

Kutha (Kota di Mesopotamia Selatan)                    =                                 Kuth; Cathia; Cutch (Bagian Gujarat)

Yaman (Negara Arab)                                                =                                          Yamuna (Sungai India)

Dubai (Bangsa Arab Emirat)                                    =                                 Dwab (Teritori Afghanistan Kuno)

Syeba, Saba (Kerajaan Etiopia dan Yaman Kuno) =                Siva; Sibi(Teritori Yaudheyapura Kuno, India)

Suriah (Rumah Yahudi Kuno)                                 =                                     Suriya (Teritori Indian Dongeng)

Sukot (Tempat dekat Yordanian dan di Mesir)    =                           Sukhothai (Kerajaan India dan Thailand)

Talmud (Kitab Suci Yahudi)                                    =  Tal-Mudra (Ajaran keramat yang ditulis di daun palem)

Kippot (Peci yang dipakai Yahudi Ortodoks)           =                                      Kaparda (Hair top-knot)

Yehudi (Yahudi)                                                           =                    Yutiya; Yah-Khuda (Nama Suku India Kuno)

Sejak Suku proto-Semit (Yehudi) meninggalkan wilayah Dwarka, bahasa Sansekerta asli yang mereka tuturkan mengalami perubahan pelafalan yang luas dan pembauran kata-kata, maka bahasa Sansekerta 5.742 tahun yang lalu adalah bahasa Ibrani yang sekarang.

Orang Buddha berkata bahwa orang-orang Abhira menuturkan ‘Bahasa Abhira’  (kemungkinan bentuk turunan dari Bharata). Orang Yadawa, rupanya bangsa proto-Ibrani yang tinggal di India, juga mengklaim menggunakan bahasa yang disebut Abhiri atau Sabari. Hari ini, Yahudi Israel yang dating ke Israel disebut “Orang-orang Sabara”

Agama Yahudi dan  Hindu Shaivisme (Penyembah Syiwa) Berbagi Nama-Nama yang Sama untuk Tuhan

Agama Yahudi                 

 

Hindu Shaivisme
Ish; Yish; Is; Isa; Issa; El; Al; dll The same in Shaivism (Sufiks & prefiks untuk

“Tuhan”)

Yahve; Jahve; Tseeva (Tuhan) Shiva; Shaiva; Siwa (Tuhan)
Elohim; Elokhim (Intelektualisasi Tuhan) Lakhimi(Dewi Kemakmuran);

Lokhi; Lukh(Syiwa)

El Shaddai (Tuhan Gunung) Saday; Sada (Syiwa)
Ha-Kadosh (Yang Kudus) Hakh-e-Kheda (Tugas Tuhan)
El Elyon (Pemilik Langit dan Bumi) Il Layun ( Resapan dalam Tuhan)
Yesoda (Dwiseksual Kodrat Kehidupan) Yeshoda (Kodrat Dwiseksual Syiwa)

Referensi untuk Suku-suku India, kasta-kasta, subkasta, dan tempat-tempat yang ditulis di sebelah kiri dan nama-nama Ibrani dan Alkitabiah di sebelah kanan

 

India

Ibrani

India

Ibrani

Abri Ibri Israel

 

Israel
Amal Amal Yaudheya Yudea
Asaul Asahel Kahaba Kahana
Azri Azriel Kanaz Kenas
Bal Baal Kaul Kaul
Bala/Balah Bala Kotru Ketura
Bakru Bokhru Kaul Kaul
Asheriya Aseyer Kalkul Kalkol
Baktu Baca Magar Magor
Banniya Baana Matri Matri
Bellu Bela Mahsa Masa
Bera; Baru Beerah Moza Moza Moza
Basaya Basseiah Nehru Nahor
Beroth Beeroth Opal Ofel
Bilgai Bilgah Pau Puah/Pua
Buhana Bohan Phalu Phallu

 

Caleb/Kleb Kaleb Put Put
Dar/Dhar Dor Raphu Raphu
Dara Dara Reu Rehu
Gabba Geba Reual Rehuel
Gaddi Gaddi Sachu Sekhu
Gani Guni Shahmiri Shamir
Gareb Gareb Shaul Shaul
Gomer Gomer Shavi Shaveh
Hahput Hatipha Shuah Shuah
Iqqash Ikkesh

Kesamaan nama-nama India dan Ibrani tentu saja mengguncang penjajah bangsa Eropa. Enggan untuk mengakui bahwa orang-orang Yahudi tidak pernah berpucuk dengan s sebagaii Timurerta merta di gurun Arabia, tetapi dari Timur sebagaimana yang alkitab beritahukan, mereka hanya menghapus perkara tersebut dari pikiran mereka atau meyakinkan diri mereka bahwa itu semua hanya ‘kebetulan’,  meskipun ‘kebetulan’ itu berjumlah ribuan dan tersebar di seluruh wilayah India.

Bahasa Aram adalah sebuah bahasa yang mirip dengan bahasa Ibrani seperti bahasa Spanyol dengan Portugis , yang berasal dari Afghanistan dan Pakistan. Keduanya pernah menjadi bagian dari India. Afghanistan memisahkan diri dari India pada tahun 1700an. Pakistan keluar dari India ketika kedua bangsa dipetakkan setelah Perang Dunia II. Bahasa Aram juga merupakan sumber dari huruf persegi Ibrani modern, yang digunakan di Israel sekarang.

Ada sebuah contoh bagaimana bangsa India kuno  diidentifikasi   orang : Para pemimpin disebut Khassi (Bani Kassi), Kusyi (Bani Kusy), Cossack (Kasta militer Rusia), Kaisar (Kasta Penguasa Romawi), Hattiya (Bani Het), Kut (dialek dari Het), Bani Hori (dialek lain bentuk Het). Assyrians(dalam bahasa Inggris), Asirios (dalam bahasa Spanyol), Asuras atau Ashuras (India), Ashuriya,Asuriya (Sumeria dan Babel), Asir (Arabia), Ahura (Persia).

Secara alamiah, pada area yang eksis dalam agama ini, mereka dikenal sebagai “Assyrians”, tidak ada ihwal nama-nama kerajaan-kerajaan  tersendiri.

Pada Sejarah Yahudi, cendekiawan dan teolog Yahudi yakni Flavius Yosefus (37-100 SM), menulis bahwa Aristoteles, seorang filosof  Yunani, telah berkata: “…kaum Yahudi berasal dari para filosof India; mereka dinamakan dengan India Kalani.”

 

Clearchus dari Soli (murid Aristoteles) menulis , “Kaum Yahudi keturunan dari para filosof India. Filosof tersebut dikenal di India kaum  Kalani dan di Suriah sebagai Yahudi. Nama dari ibukota mereka sangat sulit dilafalkan. Itu yang disebut ‘Yerusalem.”

Megasthenes, seorang sejarawan Yunani dari Ionia, yang diutus oleh raja Helenik Seleukus I sebagai duta besar untuk mahkamah Raja Chandragupta Maurya di india. Pemberitaannya mengenai budaya, sejarah, dan agama India adalah basis dari ilmu pengetahuan Barat tentang India dan yang dalil-dalil tersebut setiap hari memperoleh tambahan pengakuan dari penyelidikan-penyelidikan baru, berkata bahwa kaum Yahudi ‘adalah sebuah suku atau sekte India yang disebut Kalani..’

Orang-orang Majusi Persia pada beberapa referensi menyebutkan bahwa agama mereka disebut Kesh-i-Ibrahim. Mereka juga merunut kitab suci mereka kepada Abraham (Ibrahim), yang dipercaya diturunkan dari langit untuk mereka.

Sejarawan Arabia yang lampau juga menyatakan bahwa Brahma dan Abraham, nenek moyang mereka, adalah orang yang sama. Orang-orang Persia pada umumnya menyebut dia Ibrahim Zeradust . Koresy mengnggap agama Yahudi sama dengan agamanya,agama Zoroaster, “Kaum Hindu seharusnya berasal dari Abraham, atau Bani Israel berasal dari Brahma..”

Mr. Hyde, dalam bukunya Agama Persia Kuno, mengindikasi bahwa agama Majusi termaktub dalam kitab-kitab suci, mengajarkan bahwa ras manusia berasal dari satu pasangan: yang melahirkan saksi dari peristiwa banjir besar; yang disebut Nuh dan anak-anaknya;  sampai melibatkan Abraham, yang menyatakan sebagai penulis kitab suci tersebut; dan disebutkan juga tentang Musa. Selain itu, memuat prediksi kehormatan kemunculan Juruselamat di bumi, yang pada akhirnya akan menumbangkan kerajaan kegelapan, mendaulatkan dan meng-universalkan kerajaan cahaya dan Tuhan. Kitab tersebut juga mengajarkan eksistensi dari para malaikat baik dan jahat, dan juga kebangkitan dari kematian.

Dalam kitab suci Persia kuno dan Parsi modern, Zend Avesta, dinyatakan bahwa agama yang diajarkan diterima dari Abraham (Ibrahim): ini dipercaya oleh para penulis Arabia yang terkemuka bahwa bukan hanya agama Majusi Persia tetapi juga agama Brahmana India.

Pernyataan Kaum Majusi sudah dipengaruhi pada wahyu-wahyu dibuat untuk Abraham adalah jauh dari melemahkan semangat oleh aturan-aturan kemungkinan bersejarah. Karena perang dilakukan sangat berhasil oleh Abraham, demi sanaknya, Lot (Luth), melawan lima raja-raja,  yang di antaranya ada raja Elam [ yakni Persia] merupakan bukti yang cukup bahwa Bapa Kaum Beriman, Abraham, seorang Ibrani dari Kasdim, seharusnya  telah diketahui  dengan baik  kepada kerajaan-kerajaan timur seperti Musa di kemudian.

Pada umumnya diakui bahwa hari-hari Abraham, leluhur Persia dan Brahmana adalah orang yang sama. Di sini ada dua budaya dari keturunan biasanya didorong dari hubungan yang dekat muncul di antara bahasa Sansekerta-bahasa kaum Brahmana- dan Bahasa Zend atau Persia ; hal tersebut  juga dikatakan sebagai dua aliansi. Hal ini diperhatikan oleh Hitzig dalam Geschichte dcs Volkes Israel, beralasan dari ciri-ciri suatu praktik kesalehan diobservasi oleh Abraham dan para leluhur Israel pada sisi yang satu, dan oleh Hindu Brahmana di sisi yang lain, bahwa sebuah komunitas pada umumnya dari beberapa jenis pernah berada di antara dua bangsa.

Agama Persia Kuno berasal dari India Kuno, Arya. Bahasa tulisan-tulisan kaum Zoroaster awal tidak jauh beda dari Weda-weda India, dan banyak mitologi dapat dikenal sama. Dua kelompok para dewa disembah, para Ahura dan para daeva.

Orang-orang Yunani menyatakan bahwa kaum Yahudi adalah orang India yang oramg-orang Suriah disebut Yudea, dari sinonim bahasa Sansekerta,Yadava atau Yaudheya, dan orang-orang India disebut Kalani yang berarti para pengikut ortodoks  kitab suci .

Abraham

Abraham dikenal oleh beberapa sebagai “A Brahma”  yang berarti seorang Brahmana.

Beliau dikenal oleh lainnya sebagai “mantan Brahmana” yang menjadi seorang nabi, mazhab, atau seorang  suku yang terlibat konflik dengan para Brahmana ortodoks dan melakukan pelarian ke barat.

Hal ini dapat jelas terbukti salah satu menyelidiki akar arti kata-kata. Abraham dikatakan menjadi salah satu nabi Semit tertua. Diduga namanya berasal dari dua kata bahasa Semit yakni ‘Ab’ yang berarti ‘Bapa’  dan ‘Raam/Raham’  yang berarti ‘dari dimuliakan’. Dalam Kitab Kejadian,  nama Abraham  secara lugas diartikan sebagai ‘Orang Banyak’.

Akar kata Brahmana adalah ‘Brah’  yang berarti ‘tumbuh atau banyak dalam jumlah’. Pada tambahan Tuan Brahma, dewa Pencipta dalam agama Hindu dikatakan menjadi ‘Bapa Seluruh Manusia dan Dimuliakan seluruh Dewa’, yang berarti semua manusia berasal darinya. Dengan demikian kita tiba pada arti ‘Bapa Kemuliaan’. Hal ini adalah indikator yang jelas bahwa Abraham dihubungkan dengan dewa Hindu, Brahma.

Nama Abram/Abraham dengan jelas berasal dari kata bahasa Sansekerta Brahma.

Fakta bahwa keluarga Abram berpindah ke Haran dari Ur telah sering ditempatkan oleh para sarjana/cendekiawan bahwa Ur adalah tempat kelahiran Abram, tetapi hal ini tidak dinyatakan dalam Alkitab.

Kebalikannya, perintah kepada Abram untuk pergi ke Kanaan dan meninggalkan dengan baik tiga tempat terpisah kediamannya dahulu; rumah bapanya (yang kemudian di Haran); daratan kota Ur; dan tempat kelahirannya yang tidak diidentifikasi oleh Alkitab.

Bukti etimologi seperti yang digambarkan di atas dengan jelas berhubungan dengan kata Ibri, Brahmana, Abraham dan Ibrani mengarah kepada India sebagai tempat kelahiran Abram yang sebenarnya atau paling tidak sebagai tanah leluhurnya.

Nama Brahma sangat dihormati di India dan pengaruhnya tersebar mulai dari Persia sampai sejauh daratan yang dikelilingi oleh sungai Eufrat dan Tigris. Bangsa Persia mengadopsi Brahma dan menjadikannya miliknya. Kemudian mereka akan berkata Tuhan muncul dari Baktria, wilayah pegunungan yang berlokasi di pertengahan jalan menuju India.

Baktria (sebuah wilayah Afghanistan kuno) adalah tempat dari bangsa proto-Semit yang disebut Juhuda atau Jaguda yang juga disebut Ur-Juguda. Ur berarti ‘tempat atau kota’ . Oleh karena Alkitab mengoreksi dalam pernyataan bahwa Abraham berasal dari ‘Ur Kasdim’.

‘Kasdim atau Kaldan’ lebih akurat sebagai Kaul-Deva (para Kaul Suci) bukan sebuah nama spesifik dari suatu suku tapi sebuah gelar dari kasta kependetaan Brahmana Hindu yang dahulu hidup di Afghanistan, Pakistan dan Kashmir-negara bagianIndia- sekarang.

Apakah keluarga Abram seorang Kasdim/Kaldan/Khaldean (“dari orang Sumeria”) atau Kaul-Deva  (dari kasta pendeta Brahmana). Kebudayaan dan bangsanya menyembah banyak dewa. Hal ini merupakan warisan. Orang Kasdim menerima “Panteon Para Dewa”  dari Sumeria yang mewariskan   langsung dari India. Orang Kaul-Deva membawa hal itu langsung dari India tetapi mana saja di antara dua hal itu perkara keluarga Abram menyembah ‘para dewa” .

Voltaire berpendapat bahwa Abraham adalah keturunan dari sejumlah pendeta Brahmana yang meninggalkan India menyebar kan ajarannya ke seluruh dunia; dan dukungan dari tesisnya memberikan elemen-elemen berikutnya;  persamaan nama-nama dan fakta bahwa kota Ur, tanah para leluhur, dekat dari perbatasan Persia, jalanan ke India-tempat kelahiran Brahman.

Penyamaan Brahma dan Saraswati Hindu dengan Abraham dan Sarah Alkitab dapat dicapai dengan mudah. Dikatakan bahwa Sraswati adalah anak dari Brahma yang sesuai dengan tradisi India,imbangan Alkitabnya, Sarai, dijelaskan sebagai saudari Abraham.

Ada banyak persamaan mencolok  antara dewa Hindu Brahma dan anak/pendamping/isterinya yakni Saraswati dicocokkan dengan Abraham dan saudari/isterinya Sarai yang ditemukan lebih dari suatu kebetulan.

Abraham dan Sarah dengan mudah merujuk kepada Brahma dan Saraswati dalam versi India. Banyak epik India seperi Purana muncul jauh sebelum Alkitab ditulis.

Alkitab mengatakan bahwa Abraham dan Sarai pergi ke Timur Tengah untuk melarikan diri dari banjir besar yang melanda kampung halamannya. Secara kasar, Alkitab memiliki korespondensi dengan pengeringan sungai Saraswati, yang memicu banyak orang India ke arah barat.

 

Yosua 24: 2 & 3: Berkatalah Yosua kepada seluruhg bangsa itu: “Beginilah firman TUHAN, Allah Israel: Dahulu kala di seberang sungai Efrat, di situlah diam nenek moyangmu, yakni Terah, ayah Abraham dan ayah Nahor, dan mereka beribadah kepada allah lain. Tetapi Aku mengambil Abraham, bapamu itu, dari seberang sungai Efrat, dan menyuruh dia menjelajahi seluruh tanah Kanaan. Aku membuat banyak keturunannya dan memberikan ishak kepadanya.

Orang Persia juga mengklaim  Ibrahim (Abraham) adalah pendiri mereka seperti orang-orang Yahudi klaim. Sehingga kita dapat lihat bahwa seluruh sejarah kuno bangsa Persia, Yahudi dan Arab adalah keturunan Abraham.

Pada India kuno, cara memuja bangsa Arya disebut “Brahm-Aryan” . Bangsa Arya menyembah beberapa dewa. Abraham pergi menjauh dari politeisme. Sehingga dia menjadi “A-Brahm” (tidak lagi seorang Brahman) . Bangsa Arya menyebut orang Asura sebagai “A-Brahm”. Oleh karena itu, secara logika kita dapat berasumsi bahwa nenek moyang peradaban India kemungkinan bangsa proto Semit.

Melkisedek –Orang Bijaksana dan Raja Yerusalem

Melkisedek  adalah raja Yerusalem yang memiliki kekuatan sihir dan mistis rahasia. Dia juga guru Abraham.

Melik-Sadaksina adalah pangeran India, seorang penyihir, dan tokoh besar spiritual- putera dari seorang raja Kassite. Dalam bahasa Kashmiri dan Sansekerta, Sadak= “seorang dengan tenaga gaib, kekuatan-kekuatan supranatural ”. Sebuah kepastian, Zadok (Sadak?) juga seorang imam yang diberkati secara supranatural yang mengurapi Salomo (Sulaiman). Mengapa Malik Sadaksina orang Kassite (kasta bangsawan), tokoh mitos India, tiba-tiba muncul di Yerusalem sebagai teman dan pengajar Abraham?

Berdasarkan Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar dalam Sejarah Hindu, Brahma adalah pemimpin spiritual bangsa Arya,. Sebagai seorang Arya (Bukan dari Yah), dia secara alami percaya kepada berhala. Alkitab mengatakan bahwa dia bahkan menghasilkan mereka Upon seeing how increasing idol worship and religious guesswork were contributing

to the further downfall of his people, Brahm backed away from Aryanism and re-embraced the ancient

Indian (Yah) philosophy (Cult of the Material Universe) even though it, too, was foundering in manmade

evils. He decided that mankind could save himself only by dealing with what was real – not the imagined.

This is paralleled in a story about Abraham in the Koran when he turned away from his father’s business

of manufacturing idols.

Shocked at the barbarism and blind selfishness of the people, the wise men and educated people among

the proto-Semitics isolated themselves from the masses. Dr. Mazumdar wrote, “The moral fall was

rapid. The seers and sages lived apart from the masses. They seldom married and were mostly given to

religious contemplation. The masses, without proper light and leader, soon became vicious in the

extreme. Rape, adultery, theft, etc., became quite common. Human nature ran wild. Brahma

(Abraham) decided to reform and regenerate the people. He made the chief sages and seers to marry

and mix with the people. Most refused to marry, but 30 agreed.” Brahm married his half sister

Saraswathi. These sages became known as Prajapatis (progenitors).

There is no doubt that the Yadavas founded ancient Israel. The real name of the Jews, Yahuda, seems to

suggest this.

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The Jews spell the name of the city of ‘Yerushalayim,’ of which the Sanskrit synonym is Yadu Ishalayam,

which means the temple of the Lord of the Yadus (the descendents of Lord Krishna’s clan).

Interestingly enough, the Indian tribe of Ioud (Yadu), was either expelled from or left the Maturea of the

kingdom of Oude in India and, settled in Goshen, in Egypt, giving it the name of the place which they had

left in India, Maturea.

Ayodhya or Yaudheya would be the Indian equivalent of the word Judea. It is true that the

Jerusalemites were known as Yehudiya or Judeans (Warriors of Yah), a fact making the Hebrews Indian

origins incontrovertible.

Jerusalem was a Hittite (Indian hereditary leadership caste) city at the time of Abraham’s death. In

Genesis 23:4, Abraham asked the Jerusalem Hittites to sell him a burial plot. The Hittites answered,

“…thou art a prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us

shall withhold from thee.”

If the Hittites revered Abraham as a prince he must have been a highly regarded member of India’s

hereditary ruling, warrior or priestly caste. The Bible never did say that Abraham wasn’t a Hittite. It just

said, “I am a stranger and a sojourner with you.” (Genesis 23:4.) As the Hittites said, they

recognized Abraham as being even above them.

The Hittites were not a unique ethnicity neither were the Amorites or Amarru. Marruta was the Indian

caste name of commoners. The word “Amorite” (Marut) was the first caste name of the Indian Vaishyas:

craftsmen, farmers, cattlemen, traders, etc.

In Ancient Geography of Ayodhya, G. D. Pande writes, “Maruts represented the Visah. The

Maruts are described as forming troops or masses. Rudra, the father of the Maruts, is the

lord of cattle.” In The Civilized Demons, Malita J. Shendge states, “…the Maruts are the people.”

We should therefore not be surprised to find the Khatti (Hittites) and Maruts (Amorites) functioning as

the protectors and helpmates or assistants of Jerusalem.

In India, the Hittites were also known as Cedis or Chedis (pronounced Hatti or Khetti). Indian historians

classify them as one of the oldest castes of the Yadavas. “The Cedis formed one of the most ancient

tribes among the Ksatriyas (the aristocratic class made up of Hittites and Kassites) in early

Vedic times. As early as the period of the Rgveda the Cedi kings had acquired great

reknown… they are one of the leading powers in northern India in the great epic.” Ram or

Rama also belonged to the Yadava clan. If our Abraham, Brahm, and Ram are the one and the same

person, Abraham went to Jerusalem to be with his own people!

Ram’s congregations segregated themselves in their own communities, called Ayodhya, which in Sanskrit

means “The Unconquerable”. The Sanskrit word for “fighter” is Yuddha or Yudh.

Abraham and his group belonged to the Ayodhya (Yehudiya, Judea) congregation who remained aloof

from non-believers and Amalekites (Aryans).

It is extremely naive to assume that for the birth of a nation, and for kingship over all the

lands from the border of Egypt and beyond to the border of Mesopotamia (and beyond?),

Abram’s God would have chosen a simple shepherd or picked someone at random.

With the above statement in mind a critical review of Abram’s lineage will show that he was most

probably a descendent of a line of Royalty or at the very least of a Priestly Caste.

His Lineage and Birth Place from a Sumerian perspective

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It is also possible that Abram was born in the city of Nippur and lived in Ur with his father. Nippur and

Ur were two of the original twelve “City-States” of Sumer. The twelve main deities of the Sumerian

Pantheon of Gods (which coincidentally have corresponding Hindu prototypes) ruled these “City-States”

of Sumer one God or Goddess per one City-State.

Ur was also the city of Ur-Nammu and his Law Code. Ur-Nammu is credited as being the first Sumerian

“Law Encoder” @ 2100 BC (several hundred years prior to Hammurabi’s codes which are better known

to most people).

His was a family that not only could claim descent from Shem but which kept family records tracing its

lineage through generations of first born sons: Arpakhshad and Shelach and Eber; Peleg, Re’u and Serug;

Nahor and Terah and Abraham.

The following account, taken from the Hindu Matsya Purana (Fish Chronicle), describes

some of the people who, after a severe flood, left India for other parts of the world:

To Satyavarman, that sovereign of the whole earth, were born three sons: the eldest Shem; then

Sham; and thirdly, Jyapeti by name.

They were all men of good morals, excellent in virtue and virtuous deeds, skilled in the

use of weapons to strike with, or to be thrown; brave men, eager for victory in battle.

But Satyavarman, being continually delighted with devout meditation, and seeing his

sons fit for dominion, laid upon them the burdens of government.

Whilst he remained honoring and satisfying the gods, and priests, and kine, one day, by

the act of destiny, the king, having drunk mead

Became senseless and lay asleep naked. Then, was he seen by Sham, and by him were

his two brothers called:

To whom he said, “What now has befallen? In what state is this our sire?” By these two

he was hidden with clothes, and called to his senses again and again.

Having recovered his intellect, and perfectly knowing what had passed, he cursed

Sham, saying, “Thou shalt be the servant of servants.”

And since thou wast a laugher in their presence, from laughter thou shalt acquire a

name. Then he gave Sham the wide domain on the south of the snowy mountains.

And to Jyapeti he gave all on the north of the snowy mountains; but he, by the power of

religious contemplation, attained supreme bliss.

If you have read the Jewish or Christian bible, you can probably guess that Satyavarman, Shem, Sham,

and Jyapeti were Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japhet.

From another Hindu story we get:

“The progeny of Adamis and Hevas soon became so wicked that they were no longer able to

coexist peacefully. Brahma therefore decided to punish his creatures “Vishnu” ordered

Vaivasvata to build a ship for himself and his family. When the ship was ready, and Vaivasvata

and his family were inside with the seeds of every plant and a pair of every species of animal,

the big rains began and the rivers began to overflow.”

(They even “borrowed” the 40 days and 40 nights from the Hindu stories)

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The fourth name in the list of Abraham’s progenitors – Eber, has always held great interest to biblical

scholars. Many believe that from Eber has stemmed the biblical term Ibri (Hebrew of Brahma) by which

Abraham and his family identified themselves possibly as toponyms (names personifying places), Eber

could easily translate to Ibri which as established above could easily translate to Brahma or Abraham and

as a toponym could also have meant Nippur.

A look at the Sumerian roots of the name provides a simple answer.

Eber stems from the root word meaning “to cross,” The answer then is to be found in the Sumerian

language of Abraham and his ancestors. The term Ibri (“Hebrew”) could clearly stem from Eber, the

father of Peleg.

The biblical suffix “i” when applied to a person, meant “a native of”. For example Gileadi means a

native of Gilead.

Ibri means then, a native of the place of “Crossing”; and that was the Sumerian name for Nippur:

NI.IB.RU – the Crossing Place, the place where the pre-Diluvial grids crisscrossed each other, the

original Navel of the Earth.

Dropping the “n” in transposing from Sumerian to Akkadian/Hebrew was a frequent occurrence. In

stating that Abraham was an Ibri, the Bible simply means that Abraham was a Ni-ib-ri, a son of

Nippurian origin!

Votive inscriptions found at Nippur have confirmed that the kings of Ur cherished the title “Pious

Shepherd of Nippur” -PA.TE.SI.NI.IB.RU in Sumerian.

The fact that Abram’s family migrated to Haran from Ur has often been taken by scholars to mean that

Ur was Abram’s birthplace, but that is not stated anywhere in the Bible.

The command to Abram to go to Canaan and leave for good his past abodes lists three separate entities:

his father’s house (which was then in Haran); his land (the city-state of Ur); and his birthplace (which

the Bible does not identify).

The etymological evidence that Ibri could mean a native of Nippur could solve the problem of Abram’s

true birthplace.

Nippur was never a royal capital, but it was a consecrated city, in fact it was Sumer’s “religious center”.

It was also the place where the knowledge of astronomy was entrusted to the high priests and thus the

place where the calendar – the relationship between the Sun, and Moon in their orbits – was originated.

It has been long established that our present-day calendars derive from the original Nippurian calendar.

All the evidence shows that the Nippurian calendar began @ 4000 BCE, in the age of Taurus.

In this we find another confirmation connecting the Hebrews with Nippur: The Jewish calendar still

continues to count the years from an enigmatic beginning in 3760 BCE. It has previously been assumed

that this count is from the beginning of the world, but the actual statement by Jewish sages was that this

is the number of years that had passed “since counting (of years) began” – meaning, since the

introduction of the calendar in Nippur.

Terah Father of Abram

Following this line of reasoning Abram’s father, Terah, is also of great interest. Seeking clues only in the

Semitic environment, biblical scholars regard the name, as those of Haran and Nahor, as mere toponyms

holding that there were also cities by such names in central and northern Mesopotamia, Haran being one

example as that is the city Terah moved his family to.

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Assyriologists searching the Akkadian terminology, it being the first Semitic language, could only find that

Tirhu (Terah) meant “an artifact or vessel for magical purposes”.

Turning to the language of Sumer, we find that the cuneiform sign for Tirhu (Terah) stemmed directly

from that of an object called in Sumerian DUG.NAMTAR literally, a “Fate Speaker or One Who

Pronounces Oracles”.

In the family of Abram then, we find a priestly family of royal blood, a family headed by a Nippurian High

Priest who was the only one allowed into the temple’s innermost chamber, there to receive his God’s

words and convey it to king and people.

Terah, then, was seemingly an Oracular Priest, one assigned to approach the “Stone that Whispers” in

order to hear the deity’s words and communicate them to the lay hierarchy.

A similar function was assumed in later times by the Israelite High Priest, who alone was allowed to enter

the ‘Holy of Holies’ (the inner temple precincts), approach the Dvir (Speaker), and “hear the voice [of the

Lord] speak unto him from off the overlay which is upon the Ark of the Covenant, from between the two

Cherubim.”

Some of the names borne by the royal and/or priestly elite of Nippur resemble Abraham’s Sumerian name

– AB.RAM. AB meaning “Father” or “Progenitor.” A governor of Nippur during Shulgi’s reign (Successor

to Ur-Nammu 2093-2046 BC) for example, bore the name AB.BA.MU.

Abram/Abraham and his Family

Terah was the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran had a son named Lot. Haran died before

his father.

In 2096 BC Terah moved his family, from Ur to Haran (a mirror city of Ur also worshipping the same

deities.) In 2048 BC Abram was instructed by his god to move again.

Abram married Sarai (her name meaning ‘Princess’) his half-sister. Terah took his son Abram, his

daughter Sarai, and his grandson Lot (Haran’s son) and left Ur of the Chaldees to go to the land of

Canaan. Instead they stopped at the village of Haran and settled there. Terah lived for 205 years and died

while still at Haran.

It is of significance to note that the Bible places Abram before his brother Haran but in all likelihood

Haran was the eldest. After Haran’s pre-mature death Abraham would come first on the “Family chart”

as was the practice of the day when denoting lineal descent of Sumerian families.

This assumption is given further credence in the Bible just by mentioning the fact that Haran died and

mentioning his other children – specifically Milcah (her name meaning ‘Queenly’) and Iscah (his name

meaning ‘he that anoints’ – another priestly title) and then later Lot (his name meaning ‘Veiled’).

That Nahor the younger brother of Abram also married the very same Milcah (his niece, daughter of his

brother Haran and sister to Lot) is mentioned as well.

The rest of the Bible’s genealogy only mentions the significant players, specifically the fathers of who

begot who, how old they were when they had an heir and how old they were when they died, i.e., “When

Nahor had lived twenty-nine years, he became the father of Terah; and Nahor lived after the birth of

Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and had other sons and daughters.”

The inclusion of Lot when Terah left Ur is also significant to lineal descent. If Haran was Terah’s first son

and Lot was in turn Haran’s eldest son then Lot’s claim to the “Family Birth-right” would have been

stronger than Abram’s.

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This by-play of Lot’s rightful claim seemingly comes to a head later in Genesis 13, 7 when there was strife

between the herdsmen of Lot and the Herdsmen of Abram. Abram as a result went to Lot and asked that

there be no strife between them and asked Lot to separate himself.

In Genesis 19 verses 30 through 38 Lot’s legitimacy to his “Birthright” further suffers after the destruction

of Sodom and Gomorrah. His daughters plied him with wine and took turns ‘laying’ with him on two

separate nights. In spite of this incestuous union their children Moab and Ben-Ammi also were blessed by

their ‘God’ and became the fathers of the nations of the Moabites and Ammonites.

Many quotes in the Bible further de-fame the Moabites and Ammonites. In one instance they formed an

alliance with the Amelekites against the nation of Israel. Strange that the Israeli peoples should so

contend with their cousins instead of allying with them.

The question is why do the writers of Genesis take such pains to discredit Lot and his legitimacy?

Apparently he still held some special favor in the eyes of the God he was loyal to, for his God also made

nations of his sons.

Why was there any interest in Lot at all other than as a companion to Abram when leaving Ur and Haran?

Why was his fate described in so much detail? Why allow the sons of his incestuous unions with his

daughters to become the “Fathers of Nations”?

Seemingly the biblical writers felt a special need to legitimize Abram’s claim to the “Birth-right” while

discrediting Lot.

Did Lot also have a covenant with their God to be the “Father of Nations”? Or was the mention of Lot’s

sons/grandsons a way for the authors to assuage their complicity in removing Lot as the legitimate heir?

Maybe the people who wrote the story down well after the facts were unaware of the “Rules of Succession”

established by the Sumerian Gods.

The customs and Laws by which the Hebrew Patriarchs lived were apparently the same laws by which

Kings and Noblemen of ancient Sumer were bound, therefore it stands to reason that since the “Rules of

Succession” and the laws were handed down from the gods the same rules of succession and rights of the

children should be followed as they were followed by the “Gods”.

In example of this:

Abram who was deprived of a son by the barrenness of his wife Sarai and so had a son Ishmael by his

wife’s maidservant Hagar. Ishmael, however, was excluded from the patriarchal succession when Sarai

bore Isaac to Abram.

Simply put, Abram needed an heir by his half-sister to claim the birthright for his son! Ishmael wouldn’t

do at all.

Further cementing Abram’s claim for his descendants Isaac married Rebekah, daughter of Bethuel who

was the son of Nahor and Milcah (his uncle and his cousin). Two of Jacob’s (Israel – Issac and Rebekah’s

son) wives were Leah and Rachel daughters of Laban, son of Bethuel who was the son of Nahor and

Milcah.

A note of similarity rings here with the sibling rivalry of the Sumerian Gods Enki and Enlil. Though Enki

was first born, Enlil was heir apparent as he was born of their father Anu’s official Spouse, Antu.

Another parallel is that both Abram and later Isaac made no bones about proclaiming their respective

wives were also their sisters (though technically Isaac’s wife Rebekah was his cousin on several different

levels). This is significant in that it has puzzled many scholars due to the biblical prohibition against

sexual relations with relatives. Explained however, in the light of Abram’s lineage, as a possible Sumerian

it makes perfect sense when one understands the passing of the Sumerian “Birthrights.”

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The Sumerian/Babylonian records of their gods indicate that Enki tried several times with his half sister

Ninhursag (also a daughter of Anu but by a different mother than Enki or Enlil’s) to conceive a son who

would have more of a blood claim on the throne than did Enlil. When he failed to produce a male heir he

coupled with the daughter of this incestuous union and again produced another daughter.

Enlil and his wife Ninlil’s son Nana/Sin was not Enlil’s heir, but Enlil’s son Ninurta whom he had with his

half-sister Ninharsag (the same sister that Enki tried and failed to obtain a son through) was Enlil’s heir.

This method ensured a “purer seed” would inherit the “Birthright”.

Also with what has been established of the Elohim/Annunaki sciences – incest practiced to an extent

would be beneficial to the purity of a bloodline. Mitochondrial DNA is the key. Having a child with your

half-sister from the same father would be all right as the MtDNA is passed only through the female line

and there is no chance of genetic defect.

The early Hebrew rules of succession were nothing more than a mirror image of the rules of succession for

the Elohim/Annunaki.

This practice of marrying and providing an heir through ones sister carried on into Egyptian dynastic

times and even into the aristocracy of Europe in relatively modern times.

In the story of Abram the Bible relates incidents concerning water wells, which shows that Abram was

careful to avoid conflict with local residents as he journeyed through Canaan. When Abram became

involved in the ‘War of the Kings’, he refused to share in the booty. This is not the behavior of a

marauding barbarian but rather of a person of high standards of conduct. Coming to Egypt, Abraham and

Sarah were taken to the Pharaoh’s court; in Canaan, Abraham made treaties with the local rulers.

Ancient traditions also depict Abram as greatly versed in astronomy – which was a realm strictly

controlled by the Priestly Elite or training given to royalty.

Taking the above information into account the picture of Abram that emerges is the image of a person of

high standing who was skilled in the arts of negotiation and diplomacy, a person who subscribed to the

patriarchal rules of succession as prescribed for the Sumerian aristocracy and their Gods.

Taken in this light Abram emerges not as the son of immigrant aliens but as the scion of a

family directly involved in affairs of state of every nation in which he visited!

During the Exodus, at Mount Sinai the God proclaimed that his covenant with the descendants of

Abraham meant that; “ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests.” It was a statement that reflected

the status of Abram’s own descent – That of a Royal Priesthood.

Genesis 17: 1-6, provides us with the time and manner in which Abram was transformed from a Sumerian

nobleman to a west Semitic potentate, under a covenant between he and his God. Amid a ritual of

circumcision, his Sumerian name AB.RAM meaning, “Father of the Exalted”, was changed to the

Akkadian/Semitic Abraham meaning “Father of a Multitude of Nations” and that of his wife Sarai

meaning “Princess” was adapted to the Semitic Sarah.

It was only when he was ninety-nine years old that the newly named Abraham became a ‘Semite’.

The tales of Abraham’s interaction with the “God” that singled him out to become a people are written in

the early chapters of the book of Genesis. Only later during the time of Moses does the entity name

himself as Yahweh.

According to Genesis, Abraham saw the face of his god; Moses did not. In the time of Moses,

approximately 1500 BC, the descendants of Abraham were living in Egypt and had fallen back into the

practice of worshiping many gods; the same gods that had comprised the Indian, Sumerian and Egyptian

pantheon, as well the early Chaldean. The entity that led the Hebrew people from Egypt claimed to be one

and the same as the god of Abraham. He claimed that he had come to fulfill his promise to Abraham by

making his descendents a people, and give them the land wherein their father Abraham had lived and

15

died. He forbade them to recognize any other god but himself, by force convincing them during forty

years of wandering in the wilderness that he was the One and only God.

Did Abram/Abraham Exist?

Factually speaking there is no definitive scholastically accepted documentation supporting the existence

of Abram. There is no extra-biblical mention of him in any “accepted” ancient records found to date.

There is speculation on certain texts that they might be talking about Abram/Abraham.

As closely as can be determined:

The discovery of Babylonian tablets at the end of the eighteenth century naming Khedorla’omer, Ariokh,

and Tidhal was found and translated in a tale similar to the biblical one.

These tablets describe a war in which a king of Elam, Kudur-laghamar, led an alliance of rulers that

included one named Eri-aku and another named Tud-ghula – names that easily could have been

translated as Khedorla’omer, Ariokh, and Tidhal in Hebrew.

The scholars at the time agreed with interpretation of the cuneiform names:

“Kudur-Laghamar”, meaning “king of the land of Elam”; scholars agreed that it was a perfect

Elamite royal name, the prefix Kudur – meaning ‘Servant’ having been a component in the names of

several Elamite kings, and Laghamar being the Elamite epithet-name for a certain deity.

“Ariokh”, spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian

ERI.AKU, meaning “Servant of the god Aku,” Aku being another name of Nannar-Sin. It is known

from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name “Servant of Sin,” and there

was therefore little difficulty in agreeing that the biblical Eliasar, the royal city of the king Ariokh, was

in fact Larsa.

“Tud-ghula”, was the equivalent of the biblical “Tidhal, king of Go’im”; and they agreed that by

Go’im the Book of Genesis referred to the “nation-hordes” whom the cuneiform tablets listed as allies

of Khedorla’omer.

Although neither Abram nor any derivative of his name is mentioned in the Babylonian tablets if taken at

face value it may be the only extra-biblical documentation that can connect Abram with a specific non-

Hebrew event. Added to the long established fact that the Hebrews were great ‘borrowers’ this may be

taken as verifying not only the existence of Abram, but also of an international historical event in which he

was involved.

The question remains though, which is the period into which these events fit?

Genesis tells of an ancient war between an alliance of four kingdoms of the East against five kings in

Canaan.

Genesis 14; And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shin’ar, Ariokh king of Ellasar,

Khedorla’omer king of Elam, and Tidhal king of Go’im – That these made war with Bera King of

Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shem-eber king of Zebi’im,

and with the king of Bela, which is Zoar.

The reading of biblical chronology puts Abram in the middle of the most momentous event of that time,

not merely as an observer but as an active participant. The century of Abram was thus the century that

witnessed the rise and fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur.

Historical records have established that Shulgi in the twenty-eighth year of his reign (2068 BC) gave his

daughter in marriage to an Elamite chieftain and granted him the city of Larsa as a dowry; in return the

Elamites put a “foreign legion” of Elamite troops at Shulgi’s disposal. These troops were used by Shulgi to

subdue the western provinces, including Canaan.

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In the last years of Shulgi’s reign, when Ur was still an imperial capital under his immediate successor

Amar-Sin, we find the only historical time slot into which all the biblical and Mesopotamian records can

possibly fit.

The fact is that despite many studies about Abram/Abraham, all we know about him, is what we find in

the Bible:

Terah took his son Abram, his daughter Sarai, and his grandson Lot (Haran’s son) and left Ur of the

Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. But they stopped instead at the village of Haran and settled

there.

The Bible gives no explanation for leaving Ur, and there is also no time reference mentioned, but if the

departure is related to the events described above then time frame can be reasonably reconstructed.

When Abram proceeded later on from Haran to Canaan he was seventy-five. The bible indicates a long

stay at Haran and depicts Abram on his arrival as a young man with a new bride.

If as we have concluded Abram was born in 2123 BC, he was a child of ten when Ur-Nammu ascended the

throne in Ur, the city of Nannar-Sin.

Abram was a young man of twenty-seven when Ur-Nammu was slain on a distant battlefield. As he was

the anointed and appointed King of his “god” Nannar-Sin, his death had a traumatic effect on the people

of Mesopotamia and was a major blow to the people’s faith in Nannar’s omnipotence.

If, as we have pointed out above, Terah was a Sumerian High Priest or even a personage of royalty it

would make perfect sense for him and his family to be on the move as the faith of the people in Nannar-

Sin’s power was destroyed. The year of Ur-Nammu’s fall was 2096 BC and this is when, as a consequence

of Ur-Nammu’s fall and Nannar-Sin’s defeat, that Terah and his family left Ur for a faraway destination,

stopping off at Haran, that city being considered the Ur away from Ur and a location at which Nannar-Sin

still reigned supreme.

The following is offered as something of corroboration:

Another Sumerian text records a battle between a grandson of Anu and an enemy; the tale is known as

The Myth of Zu. Its hero is Ninurta, Enlil’s son and heir by his half-sister Ninhursag/Sud.

The story tells that in Nippur, there, atop a raised platform was the DIR.GA room, the most restricted

‘holy of holies’ where the ‘Tablets of Destinies’ – were installed.

Into this sacred chamber a god named Zu gained access, seized the vital tablets and thereby held in his

hands the fate of the Anunnaki on Earth and of Nibiru itself.

The tale of Zu can be sorted out by combining portions of Old Babylonian and Assyrian versions of the

Sumerian text, a good deal of the tale has been restored. Unfortunately the damaged portions of the

tablets still held the secret of Zu’s true identity, as well as an explanation of how an “Enemy” gained access

to the Dirga.

In Sumerian the name Zu meant “He Who Knows,” one expert in certain knowledge. The enemy of this

tale is referred to as AN.ZU – “He Who Knows the Heavens”.

From our understanding of the “legend” we have concluded that Nannar’s other name, Sin, which is

derived from SU.EN, that is another way of pronouncing ZU.EN… Nannar-Sin as SU.EN was none other

than EN.ZU (“Lord ZU”). It was Nannar-Sin, we conclude, who tried to seize control.

Both Sumerian texts, as well as archeological evidence, indicate that Sin and his spouse fled to Haran – the

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same city to which Terah and family fled to when the trouble started in Ur!

Terah and his family followed a “God”! Adding further legitimacy to our claim that Terah and then

Abraham were of a Royal Priestly Caste!

Based upon various sources it is safe to speculate that when the disgraced/discredited Nannar-Sin fell out

of favor with his father Enlil and fled to Haran he formed an alliance with Enki, Enlil’s older brother and

rival. Nannar-Sin though Enlil’s oldest son, like Enki was passed over as his father’s heir in favor of his

younger brother Ninurta due to the fact that Ninurta was the offspring of Enlil and his half-sister, as Enlil

was also the child of half siblings.

Enki and Nannar-Sin had much in common as they were in-laws as well as uncle/nephew. Enki’s younger

son Dumuzi was married to Nannar-Sin’s daughter Inanna/Ishtar. Dumuzi was killed by Marduk earning

him the eternal hatred of Inanna/Ishtar and that of her family. Enki was more forgiving and pleaded for

Marduks exile instead of death. His wish was granted and Marduk was exiled from Babylon and

Mesopotamia.

An alliance with Enki makes sense since as we have discovered, Enki was also known as Yahweh the God

of Abraham. Why else would “Yahweh’s general” defend the lands of a ‘god’ not his own?

Marduk, though Enki’s son was still a wild card, having previously been disgraced and exiled he was

pulling for power from behind the scenes through his son Nabu from his base in Hattiland and personally

as Amen/Ra in Upper Egypt. It was he pressuring the Princes of Upper Egypt to move against the

Pharaoh of Lower Egypt in an attempt to gain possession of the border at Sinai.

Enki always being concerned with the welfare of man formed an alliance with Nannar-Sin to quash

Marduks latest attempt at a coupe. His concern was less for who would rule Mesopotamia than for saving

lives. His ulterior motive was probably that his Brother Enlil would not be as lenient if he were to bend

his will and powers against those of Marduk and he would have no regard for lives lost in the process.

If our chronology is correct, and we have every reason to believe that it is, Abram’s family stayed on at

Haran all through the following years of Ur’s decline and throughout Shulgi’s reign.

And God said unto Abram:

“Get thee out of thy country and out of thy birthplace and from thy father’s house,

unto the land which I will show thee”. . .

And Abram departed as God had spoken unto him, and Lot went with him.

And Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran.

Once again, no reason is given for this crucial move, however, the chronological clues, are most revealing.

By our calculations when Abraham was seventy-five years old the year was 2048 BC – the very year of

Shulgi’s downfall!

Because Abram’s family directly continued the line of Shem, scholars have always considered Abram as a

Semite (possibly derived from ‘Shem-ite’ or ‘Sumer-ite’ or even ‘Shem-erian’). The Semites were distinct

(in scholars’ minds) from the non-Semitic Sumerians and the later Indo-Europeans.

In the original biblical sense, all the peoples of greater Mesopotamia were descended of Shem, “Semite”

and “Sumerian” alike. There is everything to support the image of a family rooted in Sumer from its

earliest beginnings, hastily uprooted from his country and birthplace and told to go to an unfamiliar land.

Abram’s family was Chaldean. This was his heritage. His culture and his people worshipped many gods.

The Chaldeans inherited their “Pantheon of Gods” from Sumeria who in their turn inherited their

pantheon from India.

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The corresponding time between two biblical events with the time of two major Sumerian events must

serve as obvious indication of a direct connection between them all.

Abrams Mission

It seems that all during Shulgi’s reign in Ur, the family of Terah stayed at Haran. Then, on Shulgi’s

demise, the divine order came to proceed to Canaan. Terah who was already quite old stayed in Haran.

The one chosen for the mission was Abram – himself a mature man of seventy-five. The year was 2048

BC; it marked the beginning of twenty-four fateful years – eighteen years encompassing the war-filled

reigns of the two immediate successors of Shulgi – Amar-Sin and Shu-Sin and six years of Ibbi-Sin, the

last sovereign king of Ur.

It is undoubtedly more than mere coincidence that Shulgi’s death was the signal not only for a move by

Abram, but also for a re-alignment among the Near Eastern gods.

It was exactly when Abram, accompanied (as we learn later) by an elite military corps, left Haran – the

gateway to the Hittite lands – that the exiled and wandering Marduk appeared in “Hatti land.” Moreover,

the remarkable coincidence is that Marduk stayed there through the same twenty-four year period, the

years that culminated with the great Disaster.

The evidence for Marduk’s movements is a tablet found in the library of Ashurbanipal, in which Marduk

tells of his wanderings and eventual return to Babylon.

We learn from the balance of the text that Marduk from his new place in exile (Asia Minor) sent

emissaries and supplies (via Haran) to his followers in Babylon, and trading agents into Mari, thereby

making inroads into both gateways – the one beholden to Nannar-Sin and the other to Nannar-Sin’s

daughter Inanna/Ishtar.

As if signaled by the death of Shulgi and the Defeat of Nannar-Sin, the whole ancient world came astir.

The House of Nannar had already been discredited and defeated by his brother Ninurta on behalf of

himself and his father Enlil. The battle was not however without out a cost and though Nannar-Sin’s

power base may have suffered losses, Enlil and Ninurta’s was also diminished.

It was at this time that the House of Marduk saw its final prevailing hour approaching. While Marduk

himself was still excluded from Mesopotamia, his first-born son, Nabu, was making converts to his

father’s cause. His efforts encompassed all the lands, including Greater Canaan.

It was against this background of fast developments that Abram was ordered to go to Canaan. Though

silent concerning why, the Old Testament is clear regarding his destination:

Moving expeditiously to Canaan, Abram and his wife, his nephew Lot, and their entourage

continued swiftly southward. There was a stopover at Shechem, where the Lord spoke to

Abram. Then he removed from there to the Mount, and encamped east of Beth-El (God’s

House); in the vicinity of Mount Moriah (“Mount of Directing”), upon whose Sacred Rock the

Ark of the Covenant was placed when Solomon built the temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem.

From there “Abram journeyed farther, still going toward the Negev.” The Negev – the dry region where

Canaan and the Sinai Peninsula merge – was clearly Abram’s destination.

What was Abram to do in the Negev who’s very name (“The Dryness”) bespoke its aridity? What was there

that required the patriarch’s hurried, journey from Haran and impelled his presence through the miles

upon miles of barren land?

The mission of Abram was a military one: specifically to protect the Sinai, the land of his God or that of

his God’s allies.

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Abram obviously had military allies in that region. His Hittite friends, who were also residents of Canaan,

were known for their military experience, which sheds light on the question of where Abram acquired the

military proficiency that he employed so successfully during the ‘War of the Kings’.

Abram also led an entourage that included an elite corps of several hundred fighting men. The biblical

term for them – Naar – has been variously translated as “retainer” or simply “young man”.

Studies have shown that in Hurrian the word denoted riders or cavalrymen. In fact, recent studies of

Mesopotamian texts dealing with military movements list among the charioteers and cavalrymen,

LU.NAR (“Nar-men”) who served as fast riders. We find an identical term in the Bible (I Samuel 30:17):

after King David attacked an Amalekite camp, the only ones to escape were “four hundred Ish-Naar” –

literally, “Nar-men” or LU.NAR – “who were riding the camels.”

The image of Abram that emerges is that of an innovative military commander of royal

descent.

This view accords well with ancient recollections of Abram. Josephus, (first century AD) wrote of him:

“Abram reigned at Damascus, where he was a foreigner, having come with an army out of the land

above Babylon” from which, “after a long time, the Lord got him up and removed from that country

together with his men and he went to the land then called the land of Canaan but now the land of

Judea.”

According to the biblical tale, a place called El-Paran was the real target of the invaders, but they never

reached it.

Coming down Transjordan and circling the Dead Sea, the invaders passed by Mount Se’ir and advanced

“toward El-Paran, which is upon the Wilderness.” But they were forced to swing back by Ein-Mishpat,

which is Kadesh. El-Paran (“God’s Gloried Place?”) was never reached; somehow the invaders were

beaten back at Ein-Mishpat, also known as Kadesh or Kadesh-Barnea.

It was only then, as they turned back toward Canaan that “Thereupon the king of Sodom and the king of

Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zebi’im and the king of Bela, which is Zoar, marched

forth and engaged them in battle in the vale of Siddim.”

The battle with these Canaanite kings was thus a late phase of the war and not its first purpose. Almost a

century ago, in a thorough study of Kadesh-Barnea, it was concluded that the true target of the invaders

was El-Paran, which was correctly identified as the fortified oasis of Nakhl in Sinai’s central plain.

Why had they gone there, and who was it that blocked their way at Kadesh-Barnea, forcing the invaders to

turn back?

The only answer that can make sense is that the significance of the destination was to launch an invasion

and Abraham was the one who blocked the advance at Kadesh-Barnea.

From earlier times Kadesh-Barnea was the closest place where men could approach in that particular

region without special permission. Shulgi had gone there to pray and make offerings to the “God Who

Judges”, and nearly a thousand years before him the Sumerian king Gilgamesh stopped there to obtain

the special permission.

The hints in the Old Testament become a detailed tale in the Khedorlaomer Texts, which make clear that

the war was intended to prevent the return of Marduk and thwart the efforts of Nabu to gain access to

Sinai.

These texts not only name the very same kings who are mentioned in the Bible but even repeat the biblical

detail of the switch of allegiance “in the thirteenth year”!

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As we return to the Kedorlaomer Texts to obtain the details for the biblical frame, we should bear in mind

that they were written by a Babylonian historian who favored Marduk’s desire to make Babylon “the

heavenward navel in the four regions.” It was to thwart this that the gods opposing Marduk ordered

Khedorlaomer to seize and defile Babylon.

The despoiling of Babylon was only the beginning. After the “bad deeds” were done there, Utu/Shamash

(son of Nannar-Sin and twin of Inanna/Ishtar) sought action against Nabu (son of Marduk)…. the gods

assembled…. Ishtar decreed an oracle, and the army put together by the kings of the East arrived in

Transjordan….

When the invaders….” thereafter, Dur-Mah-Ilani was to be captured and the Canaanite cities (including

Gaza and Beer-Sheba in the Negev) were to be punished. But at Dur-Mah-Ilani, according to the

Babylonian text, “the son of the priest, whom the gods in their true counsel had anointed,” stood in the

invader’s way and “the despoiling prevented.”

Though not specifically mentioned by name, the Babylonian text did indeed refer to Abraham, the son of

Terah the priest, and spelled out his role in turning back the invaders.

This is strengthened by the fact that the Mesopotamian and biblical texts relate the same event in the

same locality with the same outcome.

Further strengthening this position is the date formulas for the reign of Amar-Sin called his seventh year.

The crucial year being 2041 BC, the year of the military expedition – also MU NE IB.RU.UM BA.HUL

meaning – “Year the Shepherding-abode of IB.RU.UM was attacked.”

Can this reference, in the exact crucial year, be other than to Abraham and his shepherding abode?

Having carried out his mission, Abraham returned to his base near Hebron. Encouraged by his feat, the

Canaanite kings marched his forces to intercept the retreating army from the East. But the invaders beat

them and seized all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah as well as one prize hostage: They took with

them Lot, the nephew of Abraham, who was residing at Sodom.

On hearing the news, Abraham called up his best cavalrymen and pursued the retreating invaders.

Catching up with them near Damascus, he succeeded in releasing Lot and retrieving all the booty. Upon

his return he was greeted as a victor in the Valley of Shalem (Jerusalem):

And Malkizedek, the king of Shalem, brought forth bread and wine,

for he was priest unto the God Most High”.

And he blessed him, saying:

“Blessed be Abram unto the God Most High, Possessor of Heaven and Earth;

And blessed be the God Most High who hath delivered thy foes unto thine hand.”

Soon the Canaanite kings also arrived to thank Abraham, and offered him all the seized possessions as a

reward. But Abraham, saying that his local allies could share in that, refused to take “even a shoelace” for

himself or his warriors.

The invasion of the Sinai was thwarted, but the danger to it was not removed; and the efforts of Marduk to

gain the supremacy intensified ever more. Fifteen years later Sodom and Gomorrah went up in flames

when Ninurta and Nergal unleashed the weapons of awesome brilliance.

Abraham in Egypt

After his stay in the Negev Abram crossed the Sinai Peninsula and came to Egypt. Being something more

than ordinary nomads, Abram and Sarai were at once taken to the royal palace. The time was @ 2047 BC,

when the ruling Pharaoh(s) of Lower Egypt (northern part), who were not followers of Amen (“The Hiding

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God” Ra/Marduk) were facing a strong challenge from the princes of Thebes in the south, where

Amen/Marduk was deemed supreme.

We can only guess what matters of state – alliances, joint defenses, divine commands – were discussed

between the Pharaoh and the Ibri, the Nippurian general. The Bible is silent on this as well as on the

length of stay although the non-canonical Book of Jubilees states that the sojourn lasted five years. When

the time came for Abram to return to the Negev he was accompanied by a large retinue of the Pharaoh’s

men.

The Bible describes great kings of Israel who are said to have ruled between the Nile and the

Euphrates. However, the archaeology of traditional Israel does not support this claim.

In Egypt there is the archaeology of pharaohs who boasted of an empire stretching from the Nile

to the Euphrates. However, a detailed narrative record of their family history and culture has not

been found.

It could very well be that the archaeology of Egypt and the cultural memory of the Bible are two

facets of the same royal history, which should logically complement one another.

In other words, it is entirely possible that the pharaohs also reigned as kings in Israel, but under

Hebrew names. It was the common practice of kings to adopt regional identities in order to be

better accepted by the local peoples. This has been found to be the case from Babylonian Kings,

to Egyptian and vice-versa.

Some scholars believe that Abraham was the final prince of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon. In

Abraham’s day, the patriarchal empire was at the height of its imperial dominance. These

Babylonian kings held titles in Egypt, Mesopotamia and India. For example, the Kassite name of

Abraham’s grandfather was Kakrime (“strong seizer”). Terah, the father of Abraham, was known

by the Kassite name Burnaburiash I. This “Indo-European” title was shortened to Jo-ash in the

Bible. “Kassite” as you may recall from above is a derivative form of the Sanskrit word “Khassis”

which is the name of the ruling caste.

Through Narmer (Nimrod) the rival lines of inheritance from Ham and Shem were recombined.

From that time forward the Middle East was lorded over by a single royal family who considered

themselves to be equally Semitic and Hamitic. The Bible literally traces the history of the dynasty

which ruled for a thousand years over the dual regions of Egypt and Mesopotamia and possibly

beyond.

In Genesis 23:6, Abraham is called “a mighty prince among them.” Although Abraham may not

have assumed the title of pharaoh, he was considered a king, both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt.

In Genesis 14, Abraham is given the pseudonym of Shem-eber king of Zeboiim (Memphis).

Shemeber is translated as “Illustrious.” However, it is also a compound name comprised of Shem

(Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). These two ancestors were not only kings, but also masters of

the sciences, law and philosophy. Abraham was placed in their company, not only with respect to

wisdom, but also in kingship. Zeboiim, that is Memphis, was the ancient seat of kingship and

wisdom in Egypt.

So, it now becomes apparent how a young prince named Abram, heir to the throne of this vast

empire, could have spent a great deal of time in India, learned eastern philosophy and meditation,

and could have been a native of India (named A-Brahm).

Abraham has been identified by some scholars as the strangely prominent and wide-ranging

Egyptian nobleman Thutmose. This “mighty prince” is traditionally referred to in literature by

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the Egyptian form of his name, Djehuty or Djehutymes, in order to avoid confusion with the

pharaohs named Thutmose.

The Egyptian Djehutymes and Greek form Thutmose have the meaning, “Child of Thoth” or “Thoth is

Born/Reborn.” Thoth was an Egyptian God, son of the great ‘Olden God’ Ptah, who it has been

determined was the Egyptian identity of the Sunerian God Enki, Thoth then correlates to Ningishzidda,

another son of Enki and brother to the Babylonian God Marduk. Since as we have concluded above that

Enki is also the Hebrew God Yahweh, it also makes sense that Abraham would be aligned with this god as

well.

During his long career, the “mighty prince” Djehuty held the wide-ranging titles of King in Damascus and

Nefrusy, Overseer of Priests in Middle Egypt, Viceroy of Nubia (Ethiopia), General of the Armies of Egypt,

Commissioner (‘overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory’), Scribe, and Director of the Treasury.

The priestly nature of Djehuty, his international orientation, great wealth and propensity for “reckoning”

were certainly the basis for the Biblical characterization of Abraham.

Mormonism, a “Christian” religion offers many details of the life of Abraham not found elsewhere in the

Bible. Some scholars have flatly stated that the source material used by the Mormons is taken directly

from the Egyptian Book of the Dead.

Abraham in Ethiopia

Abram, according to some traditions also traveled south to Ethiopia/Sheba to obtain more troops

sometime during the Five Year period he was said to have been staying in Egypt.

Abraham went on to the hill country, settling on the highest peak near Hebron, from where he could see

in all directions; and the Lord said unto him: “Go, cross the country in the length and breadth of it, for

unto thee shall I give it.”

Evidence of this can be found in the Qemant and Falasha traditions. The Qemant are described as the

remnants of Ancient Pagan Canaanites and the Falasha as “The Black Jews of Ethiopia.”

The Qemant folkloric tradition contains a narrative detailing the trip that brought both the

Falasha and their own “Canaanite” ancestors to the land of Cush; the following is a short

summary of an interview with Muluna Marsha, the Wambar, or High Priest of the Qemant.

“The founder of the Qemant religion was called Anayer. He came here to

Ethiopia so long ago. He came after seven years of famine, from his own

country, which was far away. As he traveled on the journey, he met the

founder of the Falasha religion, also traveling on the same journey”

Was the country of their birth the same? “Yes, it was the land of Canaan”

Similar themes can be uncovered in the bible regarding the “founder” of Judaism, the Hebrew

patriarch Abraham:

Genesis 12:9,10 Then Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south…there was

famine in the land.

Genesis 13:1 And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that

he had, and Lot with him, into the south.

And;

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Genesis 14:13 Now Abram was living near the terebinth of Mamre the Amorite, a

brother of Eschol and Aner all of whom were allied with Abram.

Here we have Abram traveling to the “the south,” allied with a “Canaanite” (the Amorites being

sons of Canaan) called Aner – a name which bears a striking similarity to the name Anayer of the

Qemant lore – and living near a terebinth or sacred grove;

Genesis 21:33 And Abram planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there

on the name of the LORD

It should be noted that the Qemant also venerate sacred groves, which they call degegna.

Continuing in this line of thought there is also a genealogy of the sons of Abraham by his second

wife Keturah that includes…

Genesis 25:3 Jokshan the father of Sheba…

If we take all of these cryptic similarities together, we can safely come to the conclusion that the “children

of the Ethiopians” are indeed as the children of Israel, children of Abram even, and that Abram through

his long forgotten wanderings founded a “cultural exchange” if you will, that lasted long after his death.

Amos 9:7 Are ye not as the children of the Ethiopians unto Me, O children of Israel,

saith the Lord.

The word, “Falasha,” means “stranger” or “immigrant” in Ge’ez, the classical ecclesiastical tongue of

Ethiopia. In the Falasha tradition it is said that they can trace their ancestry both through Abraham and

through Menelik, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

The Influence on the Muslims

In India, a tributary of the river Saraswathi is Ghaggar. Another tributary of the same river is Hakra.

According to Jewish traditions, Hagar was Sarai’s maidservant; the Moslems say she was an Egyptian

princess. Notice the similarities of Ghaggar, Hakra and Hagar.

The Bible also states that Ishmael, son of Hagar, and his descendants lived in India.

Genesis 25:17-18 “…Ishmael breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his

kin… They dwelt from Havilah (India), by Shur, which is close to Egypt, all

the way to Asshur.”

Another interesting fact is that the names of Isaac and Ishmael also seemingly derive from Sanskrit:

(Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = “Friend of Shiva.” (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-

Mahal = “Great Shiva.”

Genesis 25 mentions some descendants of Abraham’s concubine Ketura (Note: The Moslems claim that

Ketura is another name of Hagar.): Jokshan; Sheba; Dedan; Epher. Some descendants of Noah were

Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, and Ophir. These varying versions have caused a suspicion that the writers of the

Bible were trying to unite several different branches of Judaism.

There was no part of the ancient world, that wasn’t influenced by Abram’s religious views. For example,

Christians and Jews have been led to believe that Mohammed copied his teachings from Jewish sources.

While partially true this is not all.

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The truth is that in Mohammed’s time, Abraham’s theology was the foundation stone of all religious sects.

All Mohammed did was to purge them of idol worship as he believed Abraham once did, his goal was to

return his people to the “Primordial Religion”, the religion he believed Abraham belonged to, Hinduism!

The Koran clearly states that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but a “God-seeker” (3, 60). He

has the status of being one of the earlier messengers of God, together with Adam, Moses, Jesus and

others. According to Muslim theology, the message of Abraham was the very same as Mohammad’s,

before it become corrupted by the Jews.

Central in the Koran is the conflict between Abraham and his father Azar. Azar was an Idolater, and

Abraham turned away from him, when he could not make his father follow the message of God (19,

42-49).

One of the shrines in the Kaaba (the holiest place of worship in the Islamic Faith) was also dedicated to

the Hindu Creator God, Brahma, which is why the illiterate prophet of Islam claimed it was dedicated to

Abraham. The word “Abraham” is none other than a mispronunciation of the word Brahma.

The Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India. It was a sacred place before the

time of Mohammed and they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it for several centuries after his time.

It’s great celebrity as a sacred place before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted.

The city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built

by a colony from India; and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was

built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indus language, would be called Ishmaelistan.

Before Mohammed’s time, The Hinduism of the Arab peoples was called Tsaba. Tsaba or Saba – a

Sanskrit word, meaning “Assembly of the Gods”. Tsaba was also called Isha-ayalam (Shiva’s Temple).

The term Moslem or Moshe-ayalam (Shiva’s Temple) is just another name of Sabaism. The word has now

shrunk to Islam. Mohammed himself, being a member of the Quaryaish family, was at first a Tsabaist.

The Tsabaists did regarded Abraham as an avatar or divinely ordained teacher called Avather Brahmo

(Judge of the Underworld).

The Indian roots of the Star of David

Star of David – the Jewish emblem consists of two interlocking triangles, one pointing up, the other

down, which is a Trantic [Tantric?] Vedic symbol or Shri Yantra.

The “Heart Chakra” or the “Star of David”

25

The hexagram, also known, as the “Star of David” is much older than Judaism! As an archetypal sign for

the sacred union of the opposite energies, it is the “yin-yang” of western civilization. Formed by the

intertwining of the “fire” and “water” triangles (the male “blade” and the female “chalice”) this symbol

represents the masculine and feminine principles in perfect union, the “sacred marriage” of the ancient

world. In India the symbol represents the “cosmic dance” of Shiva and Shakti.

According to certain Hindu beliefs the Heart Chakra is the middle chakra in a system of seven. It

symbolizes the two polarities of body and spirit as interpenetrating in perfect balance. The upward

pointing triangle symbolizes matter rising into spirit. The downward triangle represents spirit descending

into manifestation. To fully open the heart chakra we need to bring into balance the various aspects of our

existence, such as male and female, light and shadow, mind and body, practicality and spirituality.

The six points of the Star of David symbolize God’s rule over the universe in all six directions: north,

south, east, west, up and down. It is also said to represent the six attributes of God – power, wisdom,

majesty, love, mercy and justice.

Also in the Kabbalah, the two triangles represent the dichotomies inherent in man: good vs. evil, spiritual

vs. physical, etc. The two triangles may also represent the reciprocal relationship that exists between

people and God. The triangle pointing “up” symbolizes our good deeds, which go up to heaven, and then

activate a flow of goodness back down to the world, symbolized by the triangle pointing down.

Truth’s Avatar

Let the light of the Truth burn the ignorance from your mind!

Signs used in the Logo of the Truth Seekers Explained

26

“Signs”, however, are not “Symbols”. A Sign points in one, unmistakable direction through a

meaning authoritatively invested in it by its establisher. A symbol bears a built-in ambiguity, and will be

interpreted pretty much at will by observers according to their own personal predilections, mindsets,

experiences, etc.

Our Caption, “Viator Ab Veritas” translated from Latin means “Wayfarers in Truth”. This phrase

was chosen for its double connotation of both “Truth Seekers” and for those who are searching for the

“Way”. It was rendered in Latin because Latin is Cool!

The snake biting its own tail, the Greeks called it the Ouroboros, which

means “Tail Eater.” The Ouroboros is a sign of renewal, infinity, and the

Eternal Return. In mythology, the Ouroboros is any image of a snake,

worm, serpent, or dragon biting its own tail.

 Generally taking on a circular form, the symbol is representative of

many broad concepts. Time, life continuity, completion, the repetition of history, the self-sufficiency

of nature and the rebirth of the earth can all be seen within the circular boundaries of the Ouroboros.

 It appears in many shapes and forms in many differing cultures throughout history. Different

societies have shaped the Ouroboros to fit their own belief systems and purposes.

 The image has been seen in Japan, India, utilized in Greek alchemic texts, European woodcuts,

Native American Indian tribes and even by the Aztecs.

 It has, at times, been directly associated to such varying symbols as the Roman god Janus, the

Oriental Ying Yang, and the Biblical serpent of the garden of Eden.

We have chose the “fallen-eight” version of the Ouroboros to provide emphasis on infinity, the “never

ending” cycle and strategically placed it encircling the “earthly symbols” and inside the “celestial

symbols”.

27

The Sun/Moon sign was chosen as a representation of the Sumerian Gods/

Goddesses. The Sumerians are currently credited as the first known civilization and

mostly used Celestial Symbols to denote their Gods/Goddesses.

It’s position in the top left portion of the Ouroboros denotes it as one of the oldest of

the Ancient religions and which through diffusion of knowledge through time, all

other religions have taken their baselines from.

In the most Ancient writings to date the Symbol of a Cross is used to depict Nibiru, the Home Planet of

the Gods.

The Ankh, with its looped top, is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic that when translated

means life or life-giving power.

It is a sign found widely in Egyptian art, where gods and goddesses are shown clutching the

Ankh, the key to the afterlife and immortality.

  • ·  This symbol was also known as the Key of the Nile, which provided water for

Egypt to survive, thus further reinforcing the image of fertility and reproduction.

  • ·  It symbolizes the ability for life to evolve and be successful, and reminds us that life on

earth is simply one aspect of creation, and that we are all eternal beings.

  • ·  Additionally this stylized symbol of a cross was also a symbol of the Neteru, the Egyptian

pantheon of gods, scholars are now convinced that the Egyptian Gods parallel the Indian and

Sumerian gods and the symbol of the “Cross” was originally the symbol for the Planet of the

crossing, Nibiru home of the gods.

Its positioning also denotes its relationship to India and Sumer and puts it on a relative timeline with the

Indus Valley Civilization (Hindu) and the Far Eastern Civilizations (China).

This Hindu Om Sign is actually a sacred syllable representing the Absolute – the

source of all existence. The source, in itself, is incomprehensible so a symbol becomes

mandatory to help us realize the Unknowable.

  • ·  The syllable Om occurs even in English words having a similar meaning,

for instance, ‘omniscience’, ‘omnipotent’, ‘omnipresent’. Thus Om is also used to signify divinity

and authority. Its similarity with the Latin ‘M’ as also to the Greek letter ‘Omega’ is discernable.

  • ·  Even the word ‘Amen’ used by Christians to conclude a prayer seems to be akin to Om.

Its inclusion in the center of the left portion of the Ouroboros simply denotes it as one of the “Older”

religions. Hinduism closely ties in with the facts that have been left to us in the writings of the Sumerians

about the periodic Earthly cataclysms and the “re-birth” of the Earth, the Yugas or “Great Ages”.

The Yin/Yang Sign represents all the opposite principles one finds in the universe. It

denotes that all phenomena eventually changes into its opposite in an eternal cycle of

reversal.

  • ·  The Yin/Yang was derived from the I-Ching, a Chinese philosophical work

combining the rules of the natural and celestial world with those of human

affairs.

28

  • ·  As with the Ouroboros the Yin/Yang represents time, life continuity, completion, the

repetition of history, the self-sufficiency of nature and the rebirth of the earth can all be seen

within the circular boundaries.

It was selected not as a religious symbol but as a symbol of an ancient philosophy that closely ties in with

the facts that have been left to us in the writings of the Indians and the Sumerians about the periodic

Earthly cataclysms and the “re-birth” of the Earth.

Though vilified in most parts of the world after World War II, the Swastika is actually a

sign of good luck and prosperity.

The word “SWASTIKA” is derived from the Sanskrit word: “SVASTIKAH”, which means

“Being Fortunate”.

Almost every race, religion and continent honored the swastika, possibly a perfect example of the

universal spread of a symbol thru the collective unconscious.

  • ·  The American Indians, Chinese, Hindus, Buddhists, Vikings, Greeks, Romans, Celts,

Anglo-Saxons, Mayans, Aztecs, Persians, Christians, and Neolithic tribes have used it.

  • ·  There are even Jewish Swastikas found in ancient synagogues side-by-side with the Star of

David (which is not too surprising considering that the Star of David was originally Hindu too).

  • ·  The Swastika was associated with the hammer of Thor, which returned to him like a

boomerang, the footprints of Buddha, the emblem of Shiva, Apollo, Jupiter, and even Jesus

Christ!

  • ·  The Swastika was an early Christian symbol and is found in the catacombs in Rome.
  • ·  Hindus and Buddhists to this day still revere the Swastika as a sacred sign.
  • ·  The Jains make the sign of the swastika in the air similar to the way Christians make the

sign of the cross.

This Zoroasterian Icon, the Faravahar is a sign of the soul’s

progression through many lives.

The man springing out of the central disc symbolizes the human

soul.

  • · His upper hand is extended in a blessing, pointing

upward to keep us in mind of higher things.

  • · The head of the man reminds one of God -given free will.
  • · The ring held in the man’s hand symbolizes the cycles of rebirths on this earth and/or in other

planes of reality.

  • · The central circle, which as a circle has no end, symbolizes eternity.
  • · The two wings are the energies that help the soul to evolve and progress.
  • · There are five layers of feathers in the wings and these five layers signify the five Gatha hymns of

the Prophet, the five divisions of the Zoroastrian day, the five senses, and also five esoteric stages

that the soul must pass through on its way to God.

  • · The two streamers extending out from the central disc symbolize the two choices, or paths, that

face human beings: the choice of good or the choice of evil.

  • · The tail is the “rudder” of the soul, for balance between the forces of Good and Evil.
  • · There are three layers of feathers in the tail, which stand for the Threefold Path of Good

Thoughts, Words, and Deeds.

29

Its inclusion above the “newer” religious Icons denotes that the religions below it were in part derived

from it.

The “Heart Chakra” or the “Star of David”

The hexagram, also known as the “Star of David” is much older than Judaism! As an

archetypal sign for the sacred union of the opposite energies, it is the “yin-yang” of

western civilization. Formed by the intertwining of the “fire” and “water” triangles (the

male “blade” and the female “chalice”) this symbol represents the masculine and feminine principles in

perfect union, the “sacred marriage” of the ancient world. In India the symbol represents the “cosmic

dance” of Shiva and Shakti.

  • ·  According to certain Hindu beliefs the Heart Chakra is the middle chakra in a system of

seven. It symbolizes the two polarities of body and spirit as interpenetrating in perfect balance.

The upward pointing triangle symbolizes matter rising into spirit. The downward triangle

represents spirit descending into manifestation. To fully open the heart chakra we need to bring

into balance the various aspects of our existence, such as male and female, light and shadow,

mind and body, practicality and spirituality.

  • · The six points of the Star of David symbolize God’s rule over the universe in all six directions:

north, south, east, west, up and down. It is also said to represent the six attributes of God –

power, wisdom, majesty, love, mercy and justice.

  • · Additionally in the Kabbalah, the two triangles represent the dichotomies inherent in man: good

vs. evil, spiritual vs. physical, etc. The two triangles may also represent the reciprocal relationship

that exists between people and God. The triangle pointing “up” symbolizes our good deeds, which

go up to heaven, and then activate a flow of goodness back down to the world, symbolized by the

triangle pointing down.

This Symbol was chosen to represent the Hebrew Religion but also as an example how certain “Sacred”

symbols recur throughout time. Its position below the Faravahar is to show the relationship between the

two religions. The Hebrews in developing their monotheistic religion borrowed heavily from Zoroasterian

concepts.

The Cross is included as part of our “Logo” for three reasons.

1. 1. – It is the internationally known symbol of Christianity.

2. 2. – The cross was originally a Sumerian symbol for the planet of their

gods, the “Planet of the Crossing” Nibiru home of the Gods.

3. 3. – It provides another example of Knowledge Diffusion, i.e., Hebrew

dogma and beliefs being adopted and transformed.

The celestial significance of it is as a representation of the earth’s seasons; each branch of the Christian

cross symbolizes a season.

  • ·  The top: the shortest day of the winter solstice.
  • ·  The bottom: the longest day of the summer solstice.
  • ·  The two equal arms: the two equal days of the fall and spring equinox.

Early Christian crosses were “T” shaped representing the “Tau” which stood for the god Tammuz.

The Crescent Moon and Star sign was chosen as the best known representation of

the Religion of Islam.

30

Originally just a Crescent appeared on the flag of the city of Byzantium (Constantinople, modern

Istanbul).

In 330 CE, Constantine rededicated the city to the Virgin Mary, whose star symbol was added to the

previous crescent.

Mahomet II first hoisted it on behalf of the Muslims after the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

Muslims have used it more and more ever since as a way to identify themselves.

Though in actuality the Muslim faith does not have a specifically “official” Icon of the religion as such.

Once again as with some of the other symbols it was chosen for usage as yet another example of the

“Diffusion of Knowledge” behind the spread of different worldwide religions stemming from India and

Sumer.

The Star added by Constantine in the name of the Virgin Mary was a public relations stunt. Historians

and Theologians know that Constantine, though credited with the establishment of the “Holy Roman

Empire” did so for the simple reason that Christianity was causing the fall of the Roman Empire. In a

mentality of, “if you can’t beat em join em”, Constantine re-united his failing Empire under the banner of

the new religion.

Constantine was still a dedicated believer in the “Olden Gods” and though publicly proclaiming the

addition of the Star to the Crescent flag of Constantinople in the name of “Mary” or the “Mother of God”

he was really dedicating it to the “Mother of All” Ningal/Nikhal wife of the Moon-God Sin.

Keep in Mind that when Mohammed preached to the Meccans he did not introduce a new god, he only

proclaimed that of their many gods, Allah, was the greatest and only god. The Meccans, therefore could

not accuse Mohammed of preaching of a different god than they knew. He merely demanded that they

believe in one god, not many as were accepted before. There are many who speak of Allah as the Moon-

God as represented by the symbol of the crescent, the symbol of Islam. The crescent moon is on mosques

and minarets, is found on the flags of Islamic nations and the month of Ramadan begins and ends the fast

with the appearance of the crescent moon. In fact many Sumerian Moon-Gods used the crescent moon as

a personal symbol.

A Pentagram is a common symbol mainly used by Pagans and Wiccans.

The lower four points of the star represent the four elements of Earth (fire, water,

air, and earth) and the top point represents the presence of the Mother Goddess

and/or the Green Man (The Great God).

The circle around the star states the unity between the five of them.

This symbol is not to be confused with the “Anti-pentagram” which is a common symbol used in

Satanism. (The 2 pointed up pentagram is Pythagorean and Eastern Star. It represents a pentagonal

House with 5 blazing angles surrounding it, the meanings are very Eastern, the 5 being the same as the 5

Dharmas).

This symbol was chosen for its goodness and purity. The Pagan religions are a blend of what are

considered the best parts of the ancient religions.

The Caduceus is incorporated on the outside of the Ouroboros.

This symbol also originated in Sumeria and was often associated with Enki/Ea.

According to Sumerian texts Enki was the firstborn son of Anu, the “King” of Nibiru.

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Enki is portrayed as the co-creator (along with his half-sister Ninhursag) and advocate for humans.

Enki was the “God” who warned Utnapishtim/Ziusudra (better known as Noah) about the flood and gave

him directions to build a watertight Ark and told him to preserve the seeds of every living thing. Which

makes more sense than bringing all animals Two by two into a space that small.

The Zodiac is incorporated on the outside of the Ouroboros as a Celestial reference, and also to denote the

25,920 year cycle of Precession.

The Earth passes through the same spot in space once every 25,920 years. This time period can be called

the “Great Year”.

This of course was information provided to us by India and Sumer along with the original Zodiac itself.

Send comments: Compliments or Criticisms to theseeker@tds.net

 Abram/Abraham/Brahma/Avram/Abu-Ramu/Ibrahim Zeradust (@ 2000 – 1800 BCE). One

Adalah figure yang sangat utama dalam agama Yahudi dan Islam serta dipuja oleh beberapa orang Kristen.

Abraham dipercaya hidup sekitar 2000 SM, dan wafat pada usia 175 tahun berdasarkan Alkitab  dan sumber-sumber Muslim. Tidak ada sumber independen yang memastikan jangka hidup yang panjang ini.

Walaupun tidak ada bentuk bukti sejarah dan arkeologi keberadaannya, terdapat bukti yang cukup While

Bahwa bangsa dan wilayah-wilayah yang kita pelajari tentang keberadaan waktu sejarah ini.

Abraham adalah tokoh yang sangat penting dalam agama Yahudi karena beliau adalah bapa leluhur  bangsa Yahudi , melalui garis keturunan putera nya, Ishak, bapa dari Yakub yang kemudian menjadi “Israel”.

Abraham atau Ibrahim  juga seorang tokoh yang penting bagi orang-orang  Islam karena beliau adalah seorang nabi dari risalah Allah yang sama dengan nabi Muhammad S.A.W. dan bapa dari Ismael atau Isma’il, putera sulungnya yang Allah juga buat perjanjian dengannya. Pada hakekatnya Abraham adalah bapa leluhur kaum Muslim melalui puteranya,Ismael. Sebagaimana janji Allah, Ismael menjadi bapa leluhur dari 12 pangeran (Kej. 25: 12-17 ),dan juga seorang puteri,Mahalat (Mahlah),yang kemudian menjadi isteri Esau bin Ishak (Kej. 28:  6-9). Ismael adalah bapa leluhur dari bani Ismael,bangsa nomaden yang tinggal di Arabia utara. Bangsa Arab modern mengklaim sebagai keturunan Ismael (Isma’il). Ismael wafat pada usia 137 tahun (Kej. 25: 12-17).

Berikut adalah interpretasi kita akan kehidupan Abraham; ini tidak dilakukan secara sembarangan atau dengan maksud yang tidak baik ataupun dengan niat untuk mengibul.Ini dikerjakan melalui analisa studi kritis dan komparatif.

Sedapatnya dilacak menurut sejarah yang kita percayakan menjadi fakta tentang Abraham, pencarian kita menuntun kita ke India.

Para Bharata

Mahabharata berarti “India Raya”  yang ditulis sekitar tahun 540 – 300 SM, tetapi banyak sejarah lisan yang lebih tua, yang telah mengacu kepada Vyasa yang bijaksana. Mereka mencatat “legenda-legenda para Bharata, salah satu kelompok suku Arya”.

Untuk memahami  makna dari hal ini, harus dimengerti bahwa  Bharata bukanlah suatu bangsa. Bharat adalah kumpulan bangsa. India adalah nama modern dari daratan yang pernah disebut oleh  pribumi Bharata – bukan dalam konteks sebuah bangsa akan tetapi sebagai sekumpulan bangsa individu semi-kooperatif merdeka seperti halnya Eropa adalah sekumpulan bangsa.

Mempertimbangkan  kata Bharata; Kata ini dibentuk dari akar bahasa Sansekerta ‘Bhara’ yang mana dibawah berayun aturan vokalisasi, bisa diasumsikan bentuk ‘Ibhar’, ‘Iber’, ‘Ibhray’, ‘Ibhri’, ‘Ibri’, ‘Ibrini’ dll. Kata-kata tersebut disamakan dengan istilah ‘Ibrani’.

Selanjutnya diskusi tentang istilah ‘Ibrani’;  Arti lain dari istilah ‘Savitr’ (bentuk Sansekerta dari istilah Ibrani) adalah Brahmana. Sekarang mari kita mempertimbangkan kata ‘Brahmana’. Jika sufiks ‘mana’  dihilangkan dari kata tersebut, kemudian menjadi ‘Brah’, melalui waktu dan penggunaan akan memberikan kita kata ‘Habra’  yang lebih dekat dengan kata ‘Hebrew’ (‘Ibrani’). Juga kedua kata tersebut, ditulis tanpa huruf-huruf voka,akan masing-masing  memberikan ‘BRH’  dan ‘HBR’. Kesamaannya pun nampak sekali.

Demikian sangat menarik untuk dicatat kata Sansekerta lain, yakni ‘Vipra’ (sinonim dari ‘Brahman’) pada hubungan yang sama. Kata ‘Vipra’ menjadi ‘Ipar’ dalam bahasa Marathi sehari-hari. Sekarang saatnya mempertimbangkan kata ‘Ipar’. Kata ini bisa diasumsikan bentuk ‘Iber, Ibri, Ibhray, Ibrani’ dll, -bentuk lain dari Hebrew. Ini menuntun kita kepada kesimpulan tidak diragukan lagi bahwa orang-orang Ibrani (Hebrews) dapat dididentifikasikan dengan para Brahmana India yang telah bermigrasi dari India pada periode Weda lebih awal.

Poin yang kuat dari sebuah asal usul Brahmana-Yahudi umum adalah fakta bahwa kedua komunitas telah menjadi para pendeta pribumi dari catatan sejarah mereka pada era yang lebih awal. Hal tersebut bisa juga dilihat pada respek ini bahwa orang-orang Ibrani, seperti rekan sejawat orang India,para Brahmana, yang menganggap diri mereka sebagai ‘Umat Pilihan Tuhan’. Orang-orang Ibrani memulai pekerjaan mereka pada sejarah sebagai ‘Kerajaan Para Imam’ (Kel. 19: 6). Demikian halnya para Brahmana juga telah menjadi ‘Komunita Para Pendeta’ sejak awal sejarah mereka.

Kultus Brahm (Agama Hindu) dibawa dari Timur Tengah dan Timur Dekat oleh beberapa kelompok India yang berbeda. Sekitar tahun 1900 SM, setelah badai besar  dan gempa bumi mencabik sebagian wilayah utara India, pernah mengubah sepanjang sungai Indus dan Saraswati.

Ahli geografi klasik, Strabo memberitahukan kepada kita hanya bagaimana nyaris menggenapi keadaaan ditinggalkan Barat Laut India. “Aristobulus berkata bahwa ketika dia dikirim atas suatu misi di India, dia melihat sebuah negeri yang lebih dari seribu kota, bersama dengan pedesaan, yang telah lengang karena Indus ditelantarkan itu alas an yang wajar  ” (Strabo’s Geography, XV.I.19.)

Sungai Saraswati mongering sekitar tahun 1900 SM, membawa jalan ke relokasi besar populasi dipusatkan disekitar dan di lembah-lembah  Sindhu dan Saraswati, menyebabkan migrasi kea rah barat India. Hal tersebut seger saat ini bahwa unsur  India mulai muncul di seluruh Asia Barat, Mesir, dan pada akhirnya Yunani.

Sejarawanlah keluar dari India.  India, Kuttikhat Purushotama Chon, percaya bahwa Abraham keluar dari India. Dia menyatakan bahwa bangsa Arya, tidak dapat mengalahkan bangsa Asura (Kasta Perniagaan yang pernah menguasai Lembah Indus atau Harappa) menghabiskan bertahun-tahun perlawanan rahasia melawan bangsa Asura, seperti  merusak sistem danau irigasi raksasa mereka., menyebabkan banjir destruktif, yang Abraham dan kerabatnya  pasrah dan  berjalan ke Asia Barat. Oleh karena itu, selain keluar dari Utara India karena banjir, bangsa Arya juga memaksakan orang India kelas  saudagar,para tukang, dan terpelajar  mengungsi ke Asia Barat.

Edward Pocokce menulis India di Yunani,

“…dalam contoh ketidaksamaan mempunyai  perkara-perkara yang terjadi kegentaran dengan konsekuensi demikian besar,  sebagaimana yang mengalir dari perang relijius besar , selama bertahun-tahun, merajalela di seluruh India. Perebutan tersebut diakhiri oleh pengusiran besar manusia; banyak dari mereka mahir dalam kesenian dari peradaban awal, dan  sejumlah besar, prajurit perang sebagai profesi. Bergerak ke pegunungan Himalaya di utara,dank e Ceylon,kubu pertahanan terakhir mereka di selatan, menyeberangi Lembah Indus di barat, kaum yang tertindas ini membawa bibit keseniandan sains Eropa. Pasang surut manusia yang berkuasa yang dilampaui barier Punjab, digiring menghadap menuju kanal di Eropa dan Asia, untuk mengisi jabatan yang menguntungkan di fertilisasi moral dunia. Jarak perpindahan migrasi sangat besar. samaran nama-nama sangat sempurna, dan informasi orang Yunani begitu disengaja untuk menyesatkan, bahwa tak satupun defisiensi sejumlah pengabaian dari dasar teoritis, dan resolusi  riset independen, memberikan kemungkinan yang sangat tipis dari kesuksesan penjelasan. ”

Jika semua pengungsi tersebut adalah semata-mata warisan India, mengapa Sejarah  tidak menyebutkan mereka ?

Eksodus dari para pengungsi India kuno tidak berlangsung serentak tetapi selama periode seribu tahun atau lebih.

Bahwasanya mereka disebut sebagai orang Kassi, Het, Suriah, Asyur, Hori, Aram, Hyksos, Mittani, Amalek, Ethiopia (Atha-Yop), Fenisia, Kasdim, dan banyak lainnya. Akan tetapi kita telah salah mengajarkan bahwa menganggap mereka sebagai  etnis pribumi Asia Barat.

Buku sejarah kita juga menyebut mereka “Indo Eropa” , menyebabkan kita bertanya-tanya tentang dari mana  sebenarnya mereka berasal.

Banyak cendekiawan Kristen dan Yahudi (kebanyakan persuasi ‘Eurosentrik’) tidak  menginginkan hal itu benar bahwa 10-13 juta “India” pernah tinggal di Afghanistan, Pakistan, dan sampai jauh ke barat setengah batas Iran sekarang dan perbatasan Timur Arab Saudi sekarang. Mereka menyatakan itu adalah hanya “kebetulan” bahwa banyak sekali tempat nama dan suku di sana mempunyai nama-nama yang alkitabiah.

Ketika sejarawan lain bersikeras bahwa itu adalah kaum Muslim yang mengkristenisasikan semua suku dan tempat.

Kebenaran,walaupun demikian,sebagai sejarah sekarang mengingatkan lagi, bahwa banyak suku dan tempat   pernah mendapat  “nama Alkitabiah”  mereka berabad-abad atau bahkan bermilenium sebelum Islam bercahaya di mata nabi Muhammad S.A.W  dan berabad-abad sebelum nama-nama yang sama muncul di Timur Tengah.

Buku sejarah kita menyebut mereka sebagai “Bangsa Indo-Eropa” menyebabkan kita bertanya-tanya darimana asal mereka yang sebenarnya. Bangsa India dating mewujudkan identitas sosial mereka pada istilah-istilah golongan social atau kasta bukan pada istilah ras dan suku.

Berikut adalah sampel  kecil dari beberapa contoh yang mengejutkan :

Minoa (Ancient Greek nation)                                  =                                        Meena (Suku India Kuno)

Turbazu (Klan Palestina)                                           =                                      Turvazu (Suku India Kuno)

Kopt; Guptas (Dinasti Mesir Kuno)                         =                                 Gupta (Dinasti Penguasa India Kuno)

Saracens (Turki Kuno)                                                =         Sauresena (sebuah teritori dan rakyat India Kuno)

Arabea (Bangsa Arab)                                             = Arabi (Penduduk asli Makran, sekarang bagian Pakistan)

Mecca (Kota Suci umat Islam.)                               =                                         Makka (Ibukota Makran)

Islam (Agama Muhammad S.A.W)                          =                                            Ishalayam (Bait Allah)

Quraisy (Suku of Muhammad S.A.W)                    =                                            Kurus (Suku India Kuno)

Kabul (Kota di Israel)                                                 =                                        Kabul (Ibukota Afghanistan)

Jidda (Kota di Arab Saudi)                                        =                                       Juddha, Yuddha (Warrior)

Bashan (Wilayah Yordania)                                       =                          Bazana; Vashana (Ibukota Kuno Gujarat)

Manasye (Teritori dan suku Israel)                         =              Manasa (Danau Himalaya, dekat Gunung Meru)

Laisy (Kota di Kanaan)                                               =                                             Laisy (Kota di Afghanistan)

Kutha (Kota di Mesopotamia Selatan)                    =                                 Kuth; Cathia; Cutch (Bagian Gujarat)

Yaman (Negara Arab)                                                =                                          Yamuna (Sungai India)

Dubai (Bangsa Arab Emirat)                                    =                                 Dwab (Teritori Afghanistan Kuno)

Syeba, Saba (Kerajaan Etiopia dan Yaman Kuno) =                Siva; Sibi(Teritori Yaudheyapura Kuno, India)

Suriah (Rumah Yahudi Kuno)                                 =                                     Suriya (Teritori Indian Dongeng)

Sukot (Tempat dekat Yordanian dan di Mesir)    =                           Sukhothai (Kerajaan India dan Thailand)

Talmud (Kitab Suci Yahudi)                                    =  Tal-Mudra (Ajaran keramat yang ditulis di daun palem)

Kippot (Peci yang dipakai Yahudi Ortodoks)           =                                      Kaparda (Hair top-knot)

Yehudi (Yahudi)                                                           =                    Yutiya; Yah-Khuda (Nama Suku India Kuno)

Sejak Suku proto-Semit (Yehudi) meninggalkan wilayah Dwarka, bahasa Sansekerta asli yang mereka tuturkan mengalami perubahan pelafalan yang luas dan pembauran kata-kata, maka bahasa Sansekerta 5.742 tahun yang lalu adalah bahasa Ibrani yang sekarang.

Orang Buddha berkata bahwa orang-orang Abhira menuturkan ‘Bahasa Abhira’  (kemungkinan bentuk turunan dari Bharata). Orang Yadawa, rupanya bangsa proto-Ibrani yang tinggal di India, juga mengklaim menggunakan bahasa yang disebut Abhiri atau Sabari. Hari ini, Yahudi Israel yang dating ke Israel disebut “Orang-orang Sabara”

Agama Yahudi dan  Hindu Shaivisme (Penyembah Syiwa) Berbagi Nama-Nama yang Sama untuk Tuhan

Agama Yahudi                 

 

Hindu Shaivisme
Ish; Yish; Is; Isa; Issa; El; Al; dll The same in Shaivism (Sufiks & prefiks untuk

“Tuhan”)

Yahve; Jahve; Tseeva (Tuhan) Shiva; Shaiva; Siwa (Tuhan)
Elohim; Elokhim (Intelektualisasi Tuhan) Lakhimi(Dewi Kemakmuran);

Lokhi; Lukh(Syiwa)

El Shaddai (Tuhan Gunung) Saday; Sada (Syiwa)
Ha-Kadosh (Yang Kudus) Hakh-e-Kheda (Tugas Tuhan)
El Elyon (Pemilik Langit dan Bumi) Il Layun ( Resapan dalam Tuhan)
Yesoda (Dwiseksual Kodrat Kehidupan) Yeshoda (Kodrat Dwiseksual Syiwa)

Referensi untuk Suku-suku India, kasta-kasta, subkasta, dan tempat-tempat yang ditulis di sebelah kiri dan nama-nama Ibrani dan Alkitabiah di sebelah kanan

 

India

Ibrani

India

Ibrani

Abri Ibri Israel

 

Israel
Amal Amal Yaudheya Yudea
Asaul Asahel Kahaba Kahana
Azri Azriel Kanaz Kenas
Bal Baal Kaul Kaul
Bala/Balah Bala Kotru Ketura
Bakru Bokhru Kaul Kaul
Asheriya Aseyer Kalkul Kalkol
Baktu Baca Magar Magor
Banniya Baana Matri Matri
Bellu Bela Mahsa Masa
Bera; Baru Beerah Moza Moza Moza
Basaya Basseiah Nehru Nahor
Beroth Beeroth Opal Ofel
Bilgai Bilgah Pau Puah/Pua
Buhana Bohan Phalu Phallu

 

Caleb/Kleb Kaleb Put Put
Dar/Dhar Dor Raphu Raphu
Dara Dara Reu Rehu
Gabba Geba Reual Rehuel
Gaddi Gaddi Sachu Sekhu
Gani Guni Shahmiri Shamir
Gareb Gareb Shaul Shaul
Gomer Gomer Shavi Shaveh
Hahput Hatipha Shuah Shuah
Iqqash Ikkesh

Kesamaan nama-nama India dan Ibrani tentu saja mengguncang penjajah bangsa Eropa. Enggan untuk mengakui bahwa orang-orang Yahudi tidak pernah berpucuk dengan s sebagaii Timurerta merta di gurun Arabia, tetapi dari Timur sebagaimana yang alkitab beritahukan, mereka hanya menghapus perkara tersebut dari pikiran mereka atau meyakinkan diri mereka bahwa itu semua hanya ‘kebetulan’,  meskipun ‘kebetulan’ itu berjumlah ribuan dan tersebar di seluruh wilayah India.

Bahasa Aram adalah sebuah bahasa yang mirip dengan bahasa Ibrani seperti bahasa Spanyol dengan Portugis , yang berasal dari Afghanistan dan Pakistan. Keduanya pernah menjadi bagian dari India. Afghanistan memisahkan diri dari India pada tahun 1700an. Pakistan keluar dari India ketika kedua bangsa dipetakkan setelah Perang Dunia II. Bahasa Aram juga merupakan sumber dari huruf persegi Ibrani modern, yang digunakan di Israel sekarang.

Ada sebuah contoh bagaimana bangsa India kuno  diidentifikasi   orang : Para pemimpin disebut Khassi (Bani Kassi), Kusyi (Bani Kusy), Cossack (Kasta militer Rusia), Kaisar (Kasta Penguasa Romawi), Hattiya (Bani Het), Kut (dialek dari Het), Bani Hori (dialek lain bentuk Het). Assyrians(dalam bahasa Inggris), Asirios (dalam bahasa Spanyol), Asuras atau Ashuras (India), Ashuriya,Asuriya (Sumeria dan Babel), Asir (Arabia), Ahura (Persia).

Secara alamiah, pada area yang eksis dalam agama ini, mereka dikenal sebagai “Assyrians”, tidak ada ihwal nama-nama kerajaan-kerajaan  tersendiri.

Pada Sejarah Yahudi, cendekiawan dan teolog Yahudi yakni Flavius Yosefus (37-100 SM), menulis bahwa Aristoteles, seorang filosof  Yunani, telah berkata: “…kaum Yahudi berasal dari para filosof India; mereka dinamakan dengan India Kalani.”

 

Clearchus dari Soli (murid Aristoteles) menulis , “Kaum Yahudi keturunan dari para filosof India. Filosof tersebut dikenal di India kaum  Kalani dan di Suriah sebagai Yahudi. Nama dari ibukota mereka sangat sulit dilafalkan. Itu yang disebut ‘Yerusalem.”

Megasthenes, seorang sejarawan Yunani dari Ionia, yang diutus oleh raja Helenik Seleukus I sebagai duta besar untuk mahkamah Raja Chandragupta Maurya di india. Pemberitaannya mengenai budaya, sejarah, dan agama India adalah basis dari ilmu pengetahuan Barat tentang India dan yang dalil-dalil tersebut setiap hari memperoleh tambahan pengakuan dari penyelidikan-penyelidikan baru, berkata bahwa kaum Yahudi ‘adalah sebuah suku atau sekte India yang disebut Kalani..’

Orang-orang Majusi Persia pada beberapa referensi menyebutkan bahwa agama mereka disebut Kesh-i-Ibrahim. Mereka juga merunut kitab suci mereka kepada Abraham (Ibrahim), yang dipercaya diturunkan dari langit untuk mereka.

Sejarawan Arabia yang lampau juga menyatakan bahwa Brahma dan Abraham, nenek moyang mereka, adalah orang yang sama. Orang-orang Persia pada umumnya menyebut dia Ibrahim Zeradust . Koresy mengnggap agama Yahudi sama dengan agamanya,agama Zoroaster, “Kaum Hindu seharusnya berasal dari Abraham, atau Bani Israel berasal dari Brahma..”

Mr. Hyde, dalam bukunya Agama Persia Kuno, mengindikasi bahwa agama Majusi termaktub dalam kitab-kitab suci, mengajarkan bahwa ras manusia berasal dari satu pasangan: yang melahirkan saksi dari peristiwa banjir besar; yang disebut Nuh dan anak-anaknya;  sampai melibatkan Abraham, yang menyatakan sebagai penulis kitab suci tersebut; dan disebutkan juga tentang Musa. Selain itu, memuat prediksi kehormatan kemunculan Juruselamat di bumi, yang pada akhirnya akan menumbangkan kerajaan kegelapan, mendaulatkan dan meng-universalkan kerajaan cahaya dan Tuhan. Kitab tersebut juga mengajarkan eksistensi dari para malaikat baik dan jahat, dan juga kebangkitan dari kematian.

Dalam kitab suci Persia kuno dan Parsi modern, Zend Avesta, dinyatakan bahwa agama yang diajarkan diterima dari Abraham (Ibrahim): ini dipercaya oleh para penulis Arabia yang terkemuka bahwa bukan hanya agama Majusi Persia tetapi juga agama Brahmana India.

Pernyataan Kaum Majusi sudah dipengaruhi pada wahyu-wahyu dibuat untuk Abraham adalah jauh dari melemahkan semangat oleh aturan-aturan kemungkinan bersejarah. Karena perang dilakukan sangat berhasil oleh Abraham, demi sanaknya, Lot (Luth), melawan lima raja-raja,  yang di antaranya ada raja Elam [ yakni Persia] merupakan bukti yang cukup bahwa Bapa Kaum Beriman, Abraham, seorang Ibrani dari Kasdim, seharusnya  telah diketahui  dengan baik  kepada kerajaan-kerajaan timur seperti Musa di kemudian.

Pada umumnya diakui bahwa hari-hari Abraham, leluhur Persia dan Brahmana adalah orang yang sama. Di sini ada dua budaya dari keturunan biasanya didorong dari hubungan yang dekat muncul di antara bahasa Sansekerta-bahasa kaum Brahmana- dan Bahasa Zend atau Persia ; hal tersebut  juga dikatakan sebagai dua aliansi. Hal ini diperhatikan oleh Hitzig dalam Geschichte dcs Volkes Israel, beralasan dari ciri-ciri suatu praktik kesalehan diobservasi oleh Abraham dan para leluhur Israel pada sisi yang satu, dan oleh Hindu Brahmana di sisi yang lain, bahwa sebuah komunitas pada umumnya dari beberapa jenis pernah berada di antara dua bangsa.

Agama Persia Kuno berasal dari India Kuno, Arya. Bahasa tulisan-tulisan kaum Zoroaster awal tidak jauh beda dari Weda-weda India, dan banyak mitologi dapat dikenal sama. Dua kelompok para dewa disembah, para Ahura dan para daeva.

Orang-orang Yunani menyatakan bahwa kaum Yahudi adalah orang India yang oramg-orang Suriah disebut Yudea, dari sinonim bahasa Sansekerta,Yadava atau Yaudheya, dan orang-orang India disebut Kalani yang berarti para pengikut ortodoks  kitab suci .

Abraham

Abraham dikenal oleh beberapa sebagai “A Brahma”  yang berarti seorang Brahmana.

Beliau dikenal oleh lainnya sebagai “mantan Brahmana” yang menjadi seorang nabi, mazhab, atau seorang  suku yang terlibat konflik dengan para Brahmana ortodoks dan melakukan pelarian ke barat.

Hal ini dapat jelas terbukti salah satu menyelidiki akar arti kata-kata. Abraham dikatakan menjadi salah satu nabi Semit tertua. Diduga namanya berasal dari dua kata bahasa Semit yakni ‘Ab’ yang berarti ‘Bapa’  dan ‘Raam/Raham’  yang berarti ‘dari dimuliakan’. Dalam Kitab Kejadian,  nama Abraham  secara lugas diartikan sebagai ‘Orang Banyak’.

Akar kata Brahmana adalah ‘Brah’  yang berarti ‘tumbuh atau banyak dalam jumlah’. Pada tambahan Tuan Brahma, dewa Pencipta dalam agama Hindu dikatakan menjadi ‘Bapa Seluruh Manusia dan Dimuliakan seluruh Dewa’, yang berarti semua manusia berasal darinya. Dengan demikian kita tiba pada arti ‘Bapa Kemuliaan’. Hal ini adalah indikator yang jelas bahwa Abraham dihubungkan dengan dewa Hindu, Brahma.

Nama Abram/Abraham dengan jelas berasal dari kata bahasa Sansekerta Brahma.

Fakta bahwa keluarga Abram berpindah ke Haran dari Ur telah sering ditempatkan oleh para sarjana/cendekiawan bahwa Ur adalah tempat kelahiran Abram, tetapi hal ini tidak dinyatakan dalam Alkitab.

Kebalikannya, perintah kepada Abram untuk pergi ke Kanaan dan meninggalkan dengan baik tiga tempat terpisah kediamannya dahulu; rumah bapanya (yang kemudian di Haran); daratan kota Ur; dan tempat kelahirannya yang tidak diidentifikasi oleh Alkitab.

Bukti etimologi seperti yang digambarkan di atas dengan jelas berhubungan dengan kata Ibri, Brahmana, Abraham dan Ibrani mengarah kepada India sebagai tempat kelahiran Abram yang sebenarnya atau paling tidak sebagai tanah leluhurnya.

Nama Brahma sangat dihormati di India dan pengaruhnya tersebar mulai dari Persia sampai sejauh daratan yang dikelilingi oleh sungai Eufrat dan Tigris. Bangsa Persia mengadopsi Brahma dan menjadikannya miliknya. Kemudian mereka akan berkata Tuhan muncul dari Baktria, wilayah pegunungan yang berlokasi di pertengahan jalan menuju India.

Baktria (sebuah wilayah Afghanistan kuno) adalah tempat dari bangsa proto-Semit yang disebut Juhuda atau Jaguda yang juga disebut Ur-Juguda. Ur berarti ‘tempat atau kota’ . Oleh karena Alkitab mengoreksi dalam pernyataan bahwa Abraham berasal dari ‘Ur Kasdim’.

‘Kasdim atau Kaldan’ lebih akurat sebagai Kaul-Deva (para Kaul Suci) bukan sebuah nama spesifik dari suatu suku tapi sebuah gelar dari kasta kependetaan Brahmana Hindu yang dahulu hidup di Afghanistan, Pakistan dan Kashmir-negara bagianIndia- sekarang.

Apakah keluarga Abram seorang Kasdim/Kaldan/Khaldean (“dari orang Sumeria”) atau Kaul-Deva  (dari kasta pendeta Brahmana). Kebudayaan dan bangsanya menyembah banyak dewa. Hal ini merupakan warisan. Orang Kasdim menerima “Panteon Para Dewa”  dari Sumeria yang mewariskan   langsung dari India. Orang Kaul-Deva membawa hal itu langsung dari India tetapi mana saja di antara dua hal itu perkara keluarga Abram menyembah ‘para dewa” .

Voltaire berpendapat bahwa Abraham adalah keturunan dari sejumlah pendeta Brahmana yang meninggalkan India menyebar kan ajarannya ke seluruh dunia; dan dukungan dari tesisnya memberikan elemen-elemen berikutnya;  persamaan nama-nama dan fakta bahwa kota Ur, tanah para leluhur, dekat dari perbatasan Persia, jalanan ke India-tempat kelahiran Brahman.

Penyamaan Brahma dan Saraswati Hindu dengan Abraham dan Sarah Alkitab dapat dicapai dengan mudah. Dikatakan bahwa Sraswati adalah anak dari Brahma yang sesuai dengan tradisi India,imbangan Alkitabnya, Sarai, dijelaskan sebagai saudari Abraham.

Ada banyak persamaan mencolok  antara dewa Hindu Brahma dan anak/pendamping/isterinya yakni Saraswati dicocokkan dengan Abraham dan saudari/isterinya Sarai yang ditemukan lebih dari suatu kebetulan.

Abraham dan Sarah dengan mudah merujuk kepada Brahma dan Saraswati dalam versi India. Banyak epik India seperi Purana muncul jauh sebelum Alkitab ditulis.

Alkitab mengatakan bahwa Abraham dan Sarai pergi ke Timur Tengah untuk melarikan diri dari banjir besar yang melanda kampung halamannya. Secara kasar, Alkitab memiliki korespondensi dengan pengeringan sungai Saraswati, yang memicu banyak orang India ke arah barat.

 

Yosua 24: 2 & 3: Berkatalah Yosua kepada seluruhg bangsa itu: “Beginilah firman TUHAN, Allah Israel: Dahulu kala di seberang sungai Efrat, di situlah diam nenek moyangmu, yakni Terah, ayah Abraham dan ayah Nahor, dan mereka beribadah kepada allah lain. Tetapi Aku mengambil Abraham, bapamu itu, dari seberang sungai Efrat, dan menyuruh dia menjelajahi seluruh tanah Kanaan. Aku membuat banyak keturunannya dan memberikan ishak kepadanya.

Orang Persia juga mengklaim  Ibrahim (Abraham) adalah pendiri mereka seperti orang-orang Yahudi klaim. Sehingga kita dapat lihat bahwa seluruh sejarah kuno bangsa Persia, Yahudi dan Arab adalah keturunan Abraham.

Pada India kuno, cara memuja bangsa Arya disebut “Brahm-Aryan” . Bangsa Arya menyembah beberapa dewa. Abraham pergi menjauh dari politeisme. Sehingga dia menjadi “A-Brahm” (tidak lagi seorang Brahman) . Bangsa Arya menyebut orang Asura sebagai “A-Brahm”. Oleh karena itu, secara logika kita dapat berasumsi bahwa nenek moyang peradaban India kemungkinan bangsa proto Semit.

Melkisedek –Orang Bijaksana dan Raja Yerusalem

Melkisedek  adalah raja Yerusalem yang memiliki kekuatan sihir dan mistis rahasia. Dia juga guru Abraham.

Melik-Sadaksina adalah pangeran India, seorang penyihir, dan tokoh besar spiritual- putera dari seorang raja Kassite. Dalam bahasa Kashmiri dan Sansekerta, Sadak= “seorang dengan tenaga gaib, kekuatan-kekuatan supranatural ”. Sebuah kepastian, Zadok (Sadak?) juga seorang imam yang diberkati secara supranatural yang mengurapi Salomo (Sulaiman). Mengapa Malik Sadaksina orang Kassite (kasta bangsawan), tokoh mitos India, tiba-tiba muncul di Yerusalem sebagai teman dan pengajar Abraham?

Berdasarkan Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar dalam Sejarah Hindu, Brahma adalah pemimpin spiritual bangsa Arya,. Sebagai seorang Arya (Bukan dari Yah), dia secara alami percaya kepada berhala. Alkitab mengatakan bahwa dia bahkan menghasilkan mereka Upon seeing how increasing idol worship and religious guesswork were contributing

to the further downfall of his people, Brahm backed away from Aryanism and re-embraced the ancient

Indian (Yah) philosophy (Cult of the Material Universe) even though it, too, was foundering in manmade

evils. He decided that mankind could save himself only by dealing with what was real – not the imagined.

This is paralleled in a story about Abraham in the Koran when he turned away from his father’s business

of manufacturing idols.

Shocked at the barbarism and blind selfishness of the people, the wise men and educated people among

the proto-Semitics isolated themselves from the masses. Dr. Mazumdar wrote, “The moral fall was

rapid. The seers and sages lived apart from the masses. They seldom married and were mostly given to

religious contemplation. The masses, without proper light and leader, soon became vicious in the

extreme. Rape, adultery, theft, etc., became quite common. Human nature ran wild. Brahma

(Abraham) decided to reform and regenerate the people. He made the chief sages and seers to marry

and mix with the people. Most refused to marry, but 30 agreed.” Brahm married his half sister

Saraswathi. These sages became known as Prajapatis (progenitors).

There is no doubt that the Yadavas founded ancient Israel. The real name of the Jews, Yahuda, seems to

suggest this.

9

The Jews spell the name of the city of ‘Yerushalayim,’ of which the Sanskrit synonym is Yadu Ishalayam,

which means the temple of the Lord of the Yadus (the descendents of Lord Krishna’s clan).

Interestingly enough, the Indian tribe of Ioud (Yadu), was either expelled from or left the Maturea of the

kingdom of Oude in India and, settled in Goshen, in Egypt, giving it the name of the place which they had

left in India, Maturea.

Ayodhya or Yaudheya would be the Indian equivalent of the word Judea. It is true that the

Jerusalemites were known as Yehudiya or Judeans (Warriors of Yah), a fact making the Hebrews Indian

origins incontrovertible.

Jerusalem was a Hittite (Indian hereditary leadership caste) city at the time of Abraham’s death. In

Genesis 23:4, Abraham asked the Jerusalem Hittites to sell him a burial plot. The Hittites answered,

“…thou art a prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us

shall withhold from thee.”

If the Hittites revered Abraham as a prince he must have been a highly regarded member of India’s

hereditary ruling, warrior or priestly caste. The Bible never did say that Abraham wasn’t a Hittite. It just

said, “I am a stranger and a sojourner with you.” (Genesis 23:4.) As the Hittites said, they

recognized Abraham as being even above them.

The Hittites were not a unique ethnicity neither were the Amorites or Amarru. Marruta was the Indian

caste name of commoners. The word “Amorite” (Marut) was the first caste name of the Indian Vaishyas:

craftsmen, farmers, cattlemen, traders, etc.

In Ancient Geography of Ayodhya, G. D. Pande writes, “Maruts represented the Visah. The

Maruts are described as forming troops or masses. Rudra, the father of the Maruts, is the

lord of cattle.” In The Civilized Demons, Malita J. Shendge states, “…the Maruts are the people.”

We should therefore not be surprised to find the Khatti (Hittites) and Maruts (Amorites) functioning as

the protectors and helpmates or assistants of Jerusalem.

In India, the Hittites were also known as Cedis or Chedis (pronounced Hatti or Khetti). Indian historians

classify them as one of the oldest castes of the Yadavas. “The Cedis formed one of the most ancient

tribes among the Ksatriyas (the aristocratic class made up of Hittites and Kassites) in early

Vedic times. As early as the period of the Rgveda the Cedi kings had acquired great

reknown… they are one of the leading powers in northern India in the great epic.” Ram or

Rama also belonged to the Yadava clan. If our Abraham, Brahm, and Ram are the one and the same

person, Abraham went to Jerusalem to be with his own people!

Ram’s congregations segregated themselves in their own communities, called Ayodhya, which in Sanskrit

means “The Unconquerable”. The Sanskrit word for “fighter” is Yuddha or Yudh.

Abraham and his group belonged to the Ayodhya (Yehudiya, Judea) congregation who remained aloof

from non-believers and Amalekites (Aryans).

It is extremely naive to assume that for the birth of a nation, and for kingship over all the

lands from the border of Egypt and beyond to the border of Mesopotamia (and beyond?),

Abram’s God would have chosen a simple shepherd or picked someone at random.

With the above statement in mind a critical review of Abram’s lineage will show that he was most

probably a descendent of a line of Royalty or at the very least of a Priestly Caste.

His Lineage and Birth Place from a Sumerian perspective

10

It is also possible that Abram was born in the city of Nippur and lived in Ur with his father. Nippur and

Ur were two of the original twelve “City-States” of Sumer. The twelve main deities of the Sumerian

Pantheon of Gods (which coincidentally have corresponding Hindu prototypes) ruled these “City-States”

of Sumer one God or Goddess per one City-State.

Ur was also the city of Ur-Nammu and his Law Code. Ur-Nammu is credited as being the first Sumerian

“Law Encoder” @ 2100 BC (several hundred years prior to Hammurabi’s codes which are better known

to most people).

His was a family that not only could claim descent from Shem but which kept family records tracing its

lineage through generations of first born sons: Arpakhshad and Shelach and Eber; Peleg, Re’u and Serug;

Nahor and Terah and Abraham.

The following account, taken from the Hindu Matsya Purana (Fish Chronicle), describes

some of the people who, after a severe flood, left India for other parts of the world:

To Satyavarman, that sovereign of the whole earth, were born three sons: the eldest Shem; then

Sham; and thirdly, Jyapeti by name.

They were all men of good morals, excellent in virtue and virtuous deeds, skilled in the

use of weapons to strike with, or to be thrown; brave men, eager for victory in battle.

But Satyavarman, being continually delighted with devout meditation, and seeing his

sons fit for dominion, laid upon them the burdens of government.

Whilst he remained honoring and satisfying the gods, and priests, and kine, one day, by

the act of destiny, the king, having drunk mead

Became senseless and lay asleep naked. Then, was he seen by Sham, and by him were

his two brothers called:

To whom he said, “What now has befallen? In what state is this our sire?” By these two

he was hidden with clothes, and called to his senses again and again.

Having recovered his intellect, and perfectly knowing what had passed, he cursed

Sham, saying, “Thou shalt be the servant of servants.”

And since thou wast a laugher in their presence, from laughter thou shalt acquire a

name. Then he gave Sham the wide domain on the south of the snowy mountains.

And to Jyapeti he gave all on the north of the snowy mountains; but he, by the power of

religious contemplation, attained supreme bliss.

If you have read the Jewish or Christian bible, you can probably guess that Satyavarman, Shem, Sham,

and Jyapeti were Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japhet.

From another Hindu story we get:

“The progeny of Adamis and Hevas soon became so wicked that they were no longer able to

coexist peacefully. Brahma therefore decided to punish his creatures “Vishnu” ordered

Vaivasvata to build a ship for himself and his family. When the ship was ready, and Vaivasvata

and his family were inside with the seeds of every plant and a pair of every species of animal,

the big rains began and the rivers began to overflow.”

(They even “borrowed” the 40 days and 40 nights from the Hindu stories)

11

The fourth name in the list of Abraham’s progenitors – Eber, has always held great interest to biblical

scholars. Many believe that from Eber has stemmed the biblical term Ibri (Hebrew of Brahma) by which

Abraham and his family identified themselves possibly as toponyms (names personifying places), Eber

could easily translate to Ibri which as established above could easily translate to Brahma or Abraham and

as a toponym could also have meant Nippur.

A look at the Sumerian roots of the name provides a simple answer.

Eber stems from the root word meaning “to cross,” The answer then is to be found in the Sumerian

language of Abraham and his ancestors. The term Ibri (“Hebrew”) could clearly stem from Eber, the

father of Peleg.

The biblical suffix “i” when applied to a person, meant “a native of”. For example Gileadi means a

native of Gilead.

Ibri means then, a native of the place of “Crossing”; and that was the Sumerian name for Nippur:

NI.IB.RU – the Crossing Place, the place where the pre-Diluvial grids crisscrossed each other, the

original Navel of the Earth.

Dropping the “n” in transposing from Sumerian to Akkadian/Hebrew was a frequent occurrence. In

stating that Abraham was an Ibri, the Bible simply means that Abraham was a Ni-ib-ri, a son of

Nippurian origin!

Votive inscriptions found at Nippur have confirmed that the kings of Ur cherished the title “Pious

Shepherd of Nippur” -PA.TE.SI.NI.IB.RU in Sumerian.

The fact that Abram’s family migrated to Haran from Ur has often been taken by scholars to mean that

Ur was Abram’s birthplace, but that is not stated anywhere in the Bible.

The command to Abram to go to Canaan and leave for good his past abodes lists three separate entities:

his father’s house (which was then in Haran); his land (the city-state of Ur); and his birthplace (which

the Bible does not identify).

The etymological evidence that Ibri could mean a native of Nippur could solve the problem of Abram’s

true birthplace.

Nippur was never a royal capital, but it was a consecrated city, in fact it was Sumer’s “religious center”.

It was also the place where the knowledge of astronomy was entrusted to the high priests and thus the

place where the calendar – the relationship between the Sun, and Moon in their orbits – was originated.

It has been long established that our present-day calendars derive from the original Nippurian calendar.

All the evidence shows that the Nippurian calendar began @ 4000 BCE, in the age of Taurus.

In this we find another confirmation connecting the Hebrews with Nippur: The Jewish calendar still

continues to count the years from an enigmatic beginning in 3760 BCE. It has previously been assumed

that this count is from the beginning of the world, but the actual statement by Jewish sages was that this

is the number of years that had passed “since counting (of years) began” – meaning, since the

introduction of the calendar in Nippur.

Terah Father of Abram

Following this line of reasoning Abram’s father, Terah, is also of great interest. Seeking clues only in the

Semitic environment, biblical scholars regard the name, as those of Haran and Nahor, as mere toponyms

holding that there were also cities by such names in central and northern Mesopotamia, Haran being one

example as that is the city Terah moved his family to.

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Assyriologists searching the Akkadian terminology, it being the first Semitic language, could only find that

Tirhu (Terah) meant “an artifact or vessel for magical purposes”.

Turning to the language of Sumer, we find that the cuneiform sign for Tirhu (Terah) stemmed directly

from that of an object called in Sumerian DUG.NAMTAR literally, a “Fate Speaker or One Who

Pronounces Oracles”.

In the family of Abram then, we find a priestly family of royal blood, a family headed by a Nippurian High

Priest who was the only one allowed into the temple’s innermost chamber, there to receive his God’s

words and convey it to king and people.

Terah, then, was seemingly an Oracular Priest, one assigned to approach the “Stone that Whispers” in

order to hear the deity’s words and communicate them to the lay hierarchy.

A similar function was assumed in later times by the Israelite High Priest, who alone was allowed to enter

the ‘Holy of Holies’ (the inner temple precincts), approach the Dvir (Speaker), and “hear the voice [of the

Lord] speak unto him from off the overlay which is upon the Ark of the Covenant, from between the two

Cherubim.”

Some of the names borne by the royal and/or priestly elite of Nippur resemble Abraham’s Sumerian name

– AB.RAM. AB meaning “Father” or “Progenitor.” A governor of Nippur during Shulgi’s reign (Successor

to Ur-Nammu 2093-2046 BC) for example, bore the name AB.BA.MU.

Abram/Abraham and his Family

Terah was the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran had a son named Lot. Haran died before

his father.

In 2096 BC Terah moved his family, from Ur to Haran (a mirror city of Ur also worshipping the same

deities.) In 2048 BC Abram was instructed by his god to move again.

Abram married Sarai (her name meaning ‘Princess’) his half-sister. Terah took his son Abram, his

daughter Sarai, and his grandson Lot (Haran’s son) and left Ur of the Chaldees to go to the land of

Canaan. Instead they stopped at the village of Haran and settled there. Terah lived for 205 years and died

while still at Haran.

It is of significance to note that the Bible places Abram before his brother Haran but in all likelihood

Haran was the eldest. After Haran’s pre-mature death Abraham would come first on the “Family chart”

as was the practice of the day when denoting lineal descent of Sumerian families.

This assumption is given further credence in the Bible just by mentioning the fact that Haran died and

mentioning his other children – specifically Milcah (her name meaning ‘Queenly’) and Iscah (his name

meaning ‘he that anoints’ – another priestly title) and then later Lot (his name meaning ‘Veiled’).

That Nahor the younger brother of Abram also married the very same Milcah (his niece, daughter of his

brother Haran and sister to Lot) is mentioned as well.

The rest of the Bible’s genealogy only mentions the significant players, specifically the fathers of who

begot who, how old they were when they had an heir and how old they were when they died, i.e., “When

Nahor had lived twenty-nine years, he became the father of Terah; and Nahor lived after the birth of

Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and had other sons and daughters.”

The inclusion of Lot when Terah left Ur is also significant to lineal descent. If Haran was Terah’s first son

and Lot was in turn Haran’s eldest son then Lot’s claim to the “Family Birth-right” would have been

stronger than Abram’s.

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This by-play of Lot’s rightful claim seemingly comes to a head later in Genesis 13, 7 when there was strife

between the herdsmen of Lot and the Herdsmen of Abram. Abram as a result went to Lot and asked that

there be no strife between them and asked Lot to separate himself.

In Genesis 19 verses 30 through 38 Lot’s legitimacy to his “Birthright” further suffers after the destruction

of Sodom and Gomorrah. His daughters plied him with wine and took turns ‘laying’ with him on two

separate nights. In spite of this incestuous union their children Moab and Ben-Ammi also were blessed by

their ‘God’ and became the fathers of the nations of the Moabites and Ammonites.

Many quotes in the Bible further de-fame the Moabites and Ammonites. In one instance they formed an

alliance with the Amelekites against the nation of Israel. Strange that the Israeli peoples should so

contend with their cousins instead of allying with them.

The question is why do the writers of Genesis take such pains to discredit Lot and his legitimacy?

Apparently he still held some special favor in the eyes of the God he was loyal to, for his God also made

nations of his sons.

Why was there any interest in Lot at all other than as a companion to Abram when leaving Ur and Haran?

Why was his fate described in so much detail? Why allow the sons of his incestuous unions with his

daughters to become the “Fathers of Nations”?

Seemingly the biblical writers felt a special need to legitimize Abram’s claim to the “Birth-right” while

discrediting Lot.

Did Lot also have a covenant with their God to be the “Father of Nations”? Or was the mention of Lot’s

sons/grandsons a way for the authors to assuage their complicity in removing Lot as the legitimate heir?

Maybe the people who wrote the story down well after the facts were unaware of the “Rules of Succession”

established by the Sumerian Gods.

The customs and Laws by which the Hebrew Patriarchs lived were apparently the same laws by which

Kings and Noblemen of ancient Sumer were bound, therefore it stands to reason that since the “Rules of

Succession” and the laws were handed down from the gods the same rules of succession and rights of the

children should be followed as they were followed by the “Gods”.

In example of this:

Abram who was deprived of a son by the barrenness of his wife Sarai and so had a son Ishmael by his

wife’s maidservant Hagar. Ishmael, however, was excluded from the patriarchal succession when Sarai

bore Isaac to Abram.

Simply put, Abram needed an heir by his half-sister to claim the birthright for his son! Ishmael wouldn’t

do at all.

Further cementing Abram’s claim for his descendants Isaac married Rebekah, daughter of Bethuel who

was the son of Nahor and Milcah (his uncle and his cousin). Two of Jacob’s (Israel – Issac and Rebekah’s

son) wives were Leah and Rachel daughters of Laban, son of Bethuel who was the son of Nahor and

Milcah.

A note of similarity rings here with the sibling rivalry of the Sumerian Gods Enki and Enlil. Though Enki

was first born, Enlil was heir apparent as he was born of their father Anu’s official Spouse, Antu.

Another parallel is that both Abram and later Isaac made no bones about proclaiming their respective

wives were also their sisters (though technically Isaac’s wife Rebekah was his cousin on several different

levels). This is significant in that it has puzzled many scholars due to the biblical prohibition against

sexual relations with relatives. Explained however, in the light of Abram’s lineage, as a possible Sumerian

it makes perfect sense when one understands the passing of the Sumerian “Birthrights.”

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The Sumerian/Babylonian records of their gods indicate that Enki tried several times with his half sister

Ninhursag (also a daughter of Anu but by a different mother than Enki or Enlil’s) to conceive a son who

would have more of a blood claim on the throne than did Enlil. When he failed to produce a male heir he

coupled with the daughter of this incestuous union and again produced another daughter.

Enlil and his wife Ninlil’s son Nana/Sin was not Enlil’s heir, but Enlil’s son Ninurta whom he had with his

half-sister Ninharsag (the same sister that Enki tried and failed to obtain a son through) was Enlil’s heir.

This method ensured a “purer seed” would inherit the “Birthright”.

Also with what has been established of the Elohim/Annunaki sciences – incest practiced to an extent

would be beneficial to the purity of a bloodline. Mitochondrial DNA is the key. Having a child with your

half-sister from the same father would be all right as the MtDNA is passed only through the female line

and there is no chance of genetic defect.

The early Hebrew rules of succession were nothing more than a mirror image of the rules of succession for

the Elohim/Annunaki.

This practice of marrying and providing an heir through ones sister carried on into Egyptian dynastic

times and even into the aristocracy of Europe in relatively modern times.

In the story of Abram the Bible relates incidents concerning water wells, which shows that Abram was

careful to avoid conflict with local residents as he journeyed through Canaan. When Abram became

involved in the ‘War of the Kings’, he refused to share in the booty. This is not the behavior of a

marauding barbarian but rather of a person of high standards of conduct. Coming to Egypt, Abraham and

Sarah were taken to the Pharaoh’s court; in Canaan, Abraham made treaties with the local rulers.

Ancient traditions also depict Abram as greatly versed in astronomy – which was a realm strictly

controlled by the Priestly Elite or training given to royalty.

Taking the above information into account the picture of Abram that emerges is the image of a person of

high standing who was skilled in the arts of negotiation and diplomacy, a person who subscribed to the

patriarchal rules of succession as prescribed for the Sumerian aristocracy and their Gods.

Taken in this light Abram emerges not as the son of immigrant aliens but as the scion of a

family directly involved in affairs of state of every nation in which he visited!

During the Exodus, at Mount Sinai the God proclaimed that his covenant with the descendants of

Abraham meant that; “ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests.” It was a statement that reflected

the status of Abram’s own descent – That of a Royal Priesthood.

Genesis 17: 1-6, provides us with the time and manner in which Abram was transformed from a Sumerian

nobleman to a west Semitic potentate, under a covenant between he and his God. Amid a ritual of

circumcision, his Sumerian name AB.RAM meaning, “Father of the Exalted”, was changed to the

Akkadian/Semitic Abraham meaning “Father of a Multitude of Nations” and that of his wife Sarai

meaning “Princess” was adapted to the Semitic Sarah.

It was only when he was ninety-nine years old that the newly named Abraham became a ‘Semite’.

The tales of Abraham’s interaction with the “God” that singled him out to become a people are written in

the early chapters of the book of Genesis. Only later during the time of Moses does the entity name

himself as Yahweh.

According to Genesis, Abraham saw the face of his god; Moses did not. In the time of Moses,

approximately 1500 BC, the descendants of Abraham were living in Egypt and had fallen back into the

practice of worshiping many gods; the same gods that had comprised the Indian, Sumerian and Egyptian

pantheon, as well the early Chaldean. The entity that led the Hebrew people from Egypt claimed to be one

and the same as the god of Abraham. He claimed that he had come to fulfill his promise to Abraham by

making his descendents a people, and give them the land wherein their father Abraham had lived and

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died. He forbade them to recognize any other god but himself, by force convincing them during forty

years of wandering in the wilderness that he was the One and only God.

Did Abram/Abraham Exist?

Factually speaking there is no definitive scholastically accepted documentation supporting the existence

of Abram. There is no extra-biblical mention of him in any “accepted” ancient records found to date.

There is speculation on certain texts that they might be talking about Abram/Abraham.

As closely as can be determined:

The discovery of Babylonian tablets at the end of the eighteenth century naming Khedorla’omer, Ariokh,

and Tidhal was found and translated in a tale similar to the biblical one.

These tablets describe a war in which a king of Elam, Kudur-laghamar, led an alliance of rulers that

included one named Eri-aku and another named Tud-ghula – names that easily could have been

translated as Khedorla’omer, Ariokh, and Tidhal in Hebrew.

The scholars at the time agreed with interpretation of the cuneiform names:

“Kudur-Laghamar”, meaning “king of the land of Elam”; scholars agreed that it was a perfect

Elamite royal name, the prefix Kudur – meaning ‘Servant’ having been a component in the names of

several Elamite kings, and Laghamar being the Elamite epithet-name for a certain deity.

“Ariokh”, spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian

ERI.AKU, meaning “Servant of the god Aku,” Aku being another name of Nannar-Sin. It is known

from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name “Servant of Sin,” and there

was therefore little difficulty in agreeing that the biblical Eliasar, the royal city of the king Ariokh, was

in fact Larsa.

“Tud-ghula”, was the equivalent of the biblical “Tidhal, king of Go’im”; and they agreed that by

Go’im the Book of Genesis referred to the “nation-hordes” whom the cuneiform tablets listed as allies

of Khedorla’omer.

Although neither Abram nor any derivative of his name is mentioned in the Babylonian tablets if taken at

face value it may be the only extra-biblical documentation that can connect Abram with a specific non-

Hebrew event. Added to the long established fact that the Hebrews were great ‘borrowers’ this may be

taken as verifying not only the existence of Abram, but also of an international historical event in which he

was involved.

The question remains though, which is the period into which these events fit?

Genesis tells of an ancient war between an alliance of four kingdoms of the East against five kings in

Canaan.

Genesis 14; And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shin’ar, Ariokh king of Ellasar,

Khedorla’omer king of Elam, and Tidhal king of Go’im – That these made war with Bera King of

Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shem-eber king of Zebi’im,

and with the king of Bela, which is Zoar.

The reading of biblical chronology puts Abram in the middle of the most momentous event of that time,

not merely as an observer but as an active participant. The century of Abram was thus the century that

witnessed the rise and fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur.

Historical records have established that Shulgi in the twenty-eighth year of his reign (2068 BC) gave his

daughter in marriage to an Elamite chieftain and granted him the city of Larsa as a dowry; in return the

Elamites put a “foreign legion” of Elamite troops at Shulgi’s disposal. These troops were used by Shulgi to

subdue the western provinces, including Canaan.

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In the last years of Shulgi’s reign, when Ur was still an imperial capital under his immediate successor

Amar-Sin, we find the only historical time slot into which all the biblical and Mesopotamian records can

possibly fit.

The fact is that despite many studies about Abram/Abraham, all we know about him, is what we find in

the Bible:

Terah took his son Abram, his daughter Sarai, and his grandson Lot (Haran’s son) and left Ur of the

Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. But they stopped instead at the village of Haran and settled

there.

The Bible gives no explanation for leaving Ur, and there is also no time reference mentioned, but if the

departure is related to the events described above then time frame can be reasonably reconstructed.

When Abram proceeded later on from Haran to Canaan he was seventy-five. The bible indicates a long

stay at Haran and depicts Abram on his arrival as a young man with a new bride.

If as we have concluded Abram was born in 2123 BC, he was a child of ten when Ur-Nammu ascended the

throne in Ur, the city of Nannar-Sin.

Abram was a young man of twenty-seven when Ur-Nammu was slain on a distant battlefield. As he was

the anointed and appointed King of his “god” Nannar-Sin, his death had a traumatic effect on the people

of Mesopotamia and was a major blow to the people’s faith in Nannar’s omnipotence.

If, as we have pointed out above, Terah was a Sumerian High Priest or even a personage of royalty it

would make perfect sense for him and his family to be on the move as the faith of the people in Nannar-

Sin’s power was destroyed. The year of Ur-Nammu’s fall was 2096 BC and this is when, as a consequence

of Ur-Nammu’s fall and Nannar-Sin’s defeat, that Terah and his family left Ur for a faraway destination,

stopping off at Haran, that city being considered the Ur away from Ur and a location at which Nannar-Sin

still reigned supreme.

The following is offered as something of corroboration:

Another Sumerian text records a battle between a grandson of Anu and an enemy; the tale is known as

The Myth of Zu. Its hero is Ninurta, Enlil’s son and heir by his half-sister Ninhursag/Sud.

The story tells that in Nippur, there, atop a raised platform was the DIR.GA room, the most restricted

‘holy of holies’ where the ‘Tablets of Destinies’ – were installed.

Into this sacred chamber a god named Zu gained access, seized the vital tablets and thereby held in his

hands the fate of the Anunnaki on Earth and of Nibiru itself.

The tale of Zu can be sorted out by combining portions of Old Babylonian and Assyrian versions of the

Sumerian text, a good deal of the tale has been restored. Unfortunately the damaged portions of the

tablets still held the secret of Zu’s true identity, as well as an explanation of how an “Enemy” gained access

to the Dirga.

In Sumerian the name Zu meant “He Who Knows,” one expert in certain knowledge. The enemy of this

tale is referred to as AN.ZU – “He Who Knows the Heavens”.

From our understanding of the “legend” we have concluded that Nannar’s other name, Sin, which is

derived from SU.EN, that is another way of pronouncing ZU.EN… Nannar-Sin as SU.EN was none other

than EN.ZU (“Lord ZU”). It was Nannar-Sin, we conclude, who tried to seize control.

Both Sumerian texts, as well as archeological evidence, indicate that Sin and his spouse fled to Haran – the

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same city to which Terah and family fled to when the trouble started in Ur!

Terah and his family followed a “God”! Adding further legitimacy to our claim that Terah and then

Abraham were of a Royal Priestly Caste!

Based upon various sources it is safe to speculate that when the disgraced/discredited Nannar-Sin fell out

of favor with his father Enlil and fled to Haran he formed an alliance with Enki, Enlil’s older brother and

rival. Nannar-Sin though Enlil’s oldest son, like Enki was passed over as his father’s heir in favor of his

younger brother Ninurta due to the fact that Ninurta was the offspring of Enlil and his half-sister, as Enlil

was also the child of half siblings.

Enki and Nannar-Sin had much in common as they were in-laws as well as uncle/nephew. Enki’s younger

son Dumuzi was married to Nannar-Sin’s daughter Inanna/Ishtar. Dumuzi was killed by Marduk earning

him the eternal hatred of Inanna/Ishtar and that of her family. Enki was more forgiving and pleaded for

Marduks exile instead of death. His wish was granted and Marduk was exiled from Babylon and

Mesopotamia.

An alliance with Enki makes sense since as we have discovered, Enki was also known as Yahweh the God

of Abraham. Why else would “Yahweh’s general” defend the lands of a ‘god’ not his own?

Marduk, though Enki’s son was still a wild card, having previously been disgraced and exiled he was

pulling for power from behind the scenes through his son Nabu from his base in Hattiland and personally

as Amen/Ra in Upper Egypt. It was he pressuring the Princes of Upper Egypt to move against the

Pharaoh of Lower Egypt in an attempt to gain possession of the border at Sinai.

Enki always being concerned with the welfare of man formed an alliance with Nannar-Sin to quash

Marduks latest attempt at a coupe. His concern was less for who would rule Mesopotamia than for saving

lives. His ulterior motive was probably that his Brother Enlil would not be as lenient if he were to bend

his will and powers against those of Marduk and he would have no regard for lives lost in the process.

If our chronology is correct, and we have every reason to believe that it is, Abram’s family stayed on at

Haran all through the following years of Ur’s decline and throughout Shulgi’s reign.

And God said unto Abram:

“Get thee out of thy country and out of thy birthplace and from thy father’s house,

unto the land which I will show thee”. . .

And Abram departed as God had spoken unto him, and Lot went with him.

And Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran.

Once again, no reason is given for this crucial move, however, the chronological clues, are most revealing.

By our calculations when Abraham was seventy-five years old the year was 2048 BC – the very year of

Shulgi’s downfall!

Because Abram’s family directly continued the line of Shem, scholars have always considered Abram as a

Semite (possibly derived from ‘Shem-ite’ or ‘Sumer-ite’ or even ‘Shem-erian’). The Semites were distinct

(in scholars’ minds) from the non-Semitic Sumerians and the later Indo-Europeans.

In the original biblical sense, all the peoples of greater Mesopotamia were descended of Shem, “Semite”

and “Sumerian” alike. There is everything to support the image of a family rooted in Sumer from its

earliest beginnings, hastily uprooted from his country and birthplace and told to go to an unfamiliar land.

Abram’s family was Chaldean. This was his heritage. His culture and his people worshipped many gods.

The Chaldeans inherited their “Pantheon of Gods” from Sumeria who in their turn inherited their

pantheon from India.

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The corresponding time between two biblical events with the time of two major Sumerian events must

serve as obvious indication of a direct connection between them all.

Abrams Mission

It seems that all during Shulgi’s reign in Ur, the family of Terah stayed at Haran. Then, on Shulgi’s

demise, the divine order came to proceed to Canaan. Terah who was already quite old stayed in Haran.

The one chosen for the mission was Abram – himself a mature man of seventy-five. The year was 2048

BC; it marked the beginning of twenty-four fateful years – eighteen years encompassing the war-filled

reigns of the two immediate successors of Shulgi – Amar-Sin and Shu-Sin and six years of Ibbi-Sin, the

last sovereign king of Ur.

It is undoubtedly more than mere coincidence that Shulgi’s death was the signal not only for a move by

Abram, but also for a re-alignment among the Near Eastern gods.

It was exactly when Abram, accompanied (as we learn later) by an elite military corps, left Haran – the

gateway to the Hittite lands – that the exiled and wandering Marduk appeared in “Hatti land.” Moreover,

the remarkable coincidence is that Marduk stayed there through the same twenty-four year period, the

years that culminated with the great Disaster.

The evidence for Marduk’s movements is a tablet found in the library of Ashurbanipal, in which Marduk

tells of his wanderings and eventual return to Babylon.

We learn from the balance of the text that Marduk from his new place in exile (Asia Minor) sent

emissaries and supplies (via Haran) to his followers in Babylon, and trading agents into Mari, thereby

making inroads into both gateways – the one beholden to Nannar-Sin and the other to Nannar-Sin’s

daughter Inanna/Ishtar.

As if signaled by the death of Shulgi and the Defeat of Nannar-Sin, the whole ancient world came astir.

The House of Nannar had already been discredited and defeated by his brother Ninurta on behalf of

himself and his father Enlil. The battle was not however without out a cost and though Nannar-Sin’s

power base may have suffered losses, Enlil and Ninurta’s was also diminished.

It was at this time that the House of Marduk saw its final prevailing hour approaching. While Marduk

himself was still excluded from Mesopotamia, his first-born son, Nabu, was making converts to his

father’s cause. His efforts encompassed all the lands, including Greater Canaan.

It was against this background of fast developments that Abram was ordered to go to Canaan. Though

silent concerning why, the Old Testament is clear regarding his destination:

Moving expeditiously to Canaan, Abram and his wife, his nephew Lot, and their entourage

continued swiftly southward. There was a stopover at Shechem, where the Lord spoke to

Abram. Then he removed from there to the Mount, and encamped east of Beth-El (God’s

House); in the vicinity of Mount Moriah (“Mount of Directing”), upon whose Sacred Rock the

Ark of the Covenant was placed when Solomon built the temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem.

From there “Abram journeyed farther, still going toward the Negev.” The Negev – the dry region where

Canaan and the Sinai Peninsula merge – was clearly Abram’s destination.

What was Abram to do in the Negev who’s very name (“The Dryness”) bespoke its aridity? What was there

that required the patriarch’s hurried, journey from Haran and impelled his presence through the miles

upon miles of barren land?

The mission of Abram was a military one: specifically to protect the Sinai, the land of his God or that of

his God’s allies.

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Abram obviously had military allies in that region. His Hittite friends, who were also residents of Canaan,

were known for their military experience, which sheds light on the question of where Abram acquired the

military proficiency that he employed so successfully during the ‘War of the Kings’.

Abram also led an entourage that included an elite corps of several hundred fighting men. The biblical

term for them – Naar – has been variously translated as “retainer” or simply “young man”.

Studies have shown that in Hurrian the word denoted riders or cavalrymen. In fact, recent studies of

Mesopotamian texts dealing with military movements list among the charioteers and cavalrymen,

LU.NAR (“Nar-men”) who served as fast riders. We find an identical term in the Bible (I Samuel 30:17):

after King David attacked an Amalekite camp, the only ones to escape were “four hundred Ish-Naar” –

literally, “Nar-men” or LU.NAR – “who were riding the camels.”

The image of Abram that emerges is that of an innovative military commander of royal

descent.

This view accords well with ancient recollections of Abram. Josephus, (first century AD) wrote of him:

“Abram reigned at Damascus, where he was a foreigner, having come with an army out of the land

above Babylon” from which, “after a long time, the Lord got him up and removed from that country

together with his men and he went to the land then called the land of Canaan but now the land of

Judea.”

According to the biblical tale, a place called El-Paran was the real target of the invaders, but they never

reached it.

Coming down Transjordan and circling the Dead Sea, the invaders passed by Mount Se’ir and advanced

“toward El-Paran, which is upon the Wilderness.” But they were forced to swing back by Ein-Mishpat,

which is Kadesh. El-Paran (“God’s Gloried Place?”) was never reached; somehow the invaders were

beaten back at Ein-Mishpat, also known as Kadesh or Kadesh-Barnea.

It was only then, as they turned back toward Canaan that “Thereupon the king of Sodom and the king of

Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zebi’im and the king of Bela, which is Zoar, marched

forth and engaged them in battle in the vale of Siddim.”

The battle with these Canaanite kings was thus a late phase of the war and not its first purpose. Almost a

century ago, in a thorough study of Kadesh-Barnea, it was concluded that the true target of the invaders

was El-Paran, which was correctly identified as the fortified oasis of Nakhl in Sinai’s central plain.

Why had they gone there, and who was it that blocked their way at Kadesh-Barnea, forcing the invaders to

turn back?

The only answer that can make sense is that the significance of the destination was to launch an invasion

and Abraham was the one who blocked the advance at Kadesh-Barnea.

From earlier times Kadesh-Barnea was the closest place where men could approach in that particular

region without special permission. Shulgi had gone there to pray and make offerings to the “God Who

Judges”, and nearly a thousand years before him the Sumerian king Gilgamesh stopped there to obtain

the special permission.

The hints in the Old Testament become a detailed tale in the Khedorlaomer Texts, which make clear that

the war was intended to prevent the return of Marduk and thwart the efforts of Nabu to gain access to

Sinai.

These texts not only name the very same kings who are mentioned in the Bible but even repeat the biblical

detail of the switch of allegiance “in the thirteenth year”!

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As we return to the Kedorlaomer Texts to obtain the details for the biblical frame, we should bear in mind

that they were written by a Babylonian historian who favored Marduk’s desire to make Babylon “the

heavenward navel in the four regions.” It was to thwart this that the gods opposing Marduk ordered

Khedorlaomer to seize and defile Babylon.

The despoiling of Babylon was only the beginning. After the “bad deeds” were done there, Utu/Shamash

(son of Nannar-Sin and twin of Inanna/Ishtar) sought action against Nabu (son of Marduk)…. the gods

assembled…. Ishtar decreed an oracle, and the army put together by the kings of the East arrived in

Transjordan….

When the invaders….” thereafter, Dur-Mah-Ilani was to be captured and the Canaanite cities (including

Gaza and Beer-Sheba in the Negev) were to be punished. But at Dur-Mah-Ilani, according to the

Babylonian text, “the son of the priest, whom the gods in their true counsel had anointed,” stood in the

invader’s way and “the despoiling prevented.”

Though not specifically mentioned by name, the Babylonian text did indeed refer to Abraham, the son of

Terah the priest, and spelled out his role in turning back the invaders.

This is strengthened by the fact that the Mesopotamian and biblical texts relate the same event in the

same locality with the same outcome.

Further strengthening this position is the date formulas for the reign of Amar-Sin called his seventh year.

The crucial year being 2041 BC, the year of the military expedition – also MU NE IB.RU.UM BA.HUL

meaning – “Year the Shepherding-abode of IB.RU.UM was attacked.”

Can this reference, in the exact crucial year, be other than to Abraham and his shepherding abode?

Having carried out his mission, Abraham returned to his base near Hebron. Encouraged by his feat, the

Canaanite kings marched his forces to intercept the retreating army from the East. But the invaders beat

them and seized all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah as well as one prize hostage: They took with

them Lot, the nephew of Abraham, who was residing at Sodom.

On hearing the news, Abraham called up his best cavalrymen and pursued the retreating invaders.

Catching up with them near Damascus, he succeeded in releasing Lot and retrieving all the booty. Upon

his return he was greeted as a victor in the Valley of Shalem (Jerusalem):

And Malkizedek, the king of Shalem, brought forth bread and wine,

for he was priest unto the God Most High”.

And he blessed him, saying:

“Blessed be Abram unto the God Most High, Possessor of Heaven and Earth;

And blessed be the God Most High who hath delivered thy foes unto thine hand.”

Soon the Canaanite kings also arrived to thank Abraham, and offered him all the seized possessions as a

reward. But Abraham, saying that his local allies could share in that, refused to take “even a shoelace” for

himself or his warriors.

The invasion of the Sinai was thwarted, but the danger to it was not removed; and the efforts of Marduk to

gain the supremacy intensified ever more. Fifteen years later Sodom and Gomorrah went up in flames

when Ninurta and Nergal unleashed the weapons of awesome brilliance.

Abraham in Egypt

After his stay in the Negev Abram crossed the Sinai Peninsula and came to Egypt. Being something more

than ordinary nomads, Abram and Sarai were at once taken to the royal palace. The time was @ 2047 BC,

when the ruling Pharaoh(s) of Lower Egypt (northern part), who were not followers of Amen (“The Hiding

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God” Ra/Marduk) were facing a strong challenge from the princes of Thebes in the south, where

Amen/Marduk was deemed supreme.

We can only guess what matters of state – alliances, joint defenses, divine commands – were discussed

between the Pharaoh and the Ibri, the Nippurian general. The Bible is silent on this as well as on the

length of stay although the non-canonical Book of Jubilees states that the sojourn lasted five years. When

the time came for Abram to return to the Negev he was accompanied by a large retinue of the Pharaoh’s

men.

The Bible describes great kings of Israel who are said to have ruled between the Nile and the

Euphrates. However, the archaeology of traditional Israel does not support this claim.

In Egypt there is the archaeology of pharaohs who boasted of an empire stretching from the Nile

to the Euphrates. However, a detailed narrative record of their family history and culture has not

been found.

It could very well be that the archaeology of Egypt and the cultural memory of the Bible are two

facets of the same royal history, which should logically complement one another.

In other words, it is entirely possible that the pharaohs also reigned as kings in Israel, but under

Hebrew names. It was the common practice of kings to adopt regional identities in order to be

better accepted by the local peoples. This has been found to be the case from Babylonian Kings,

to Egyptian and vice-versa.

Some scholars believe that Abraham was the final prince of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon. In

Abraham’s day, the patriarchal empire was at the height of its imperial dominance. These

Babylonian kings held titles in Egypt, Mesopotamia and India. For example, the Kassite name of

Abraham’s grandfather was Kakrime (“strong seizer”). Terah, the father of Abraham, was known

by the Kassite name Burnaburiash I. This “Indo-European” title was shortened to Jo-ash in the

Bible. “Kassite” as you may recall from above is a derivative form of the Sanskrit word “Khassis”

which is the name of the ruling caste.

Through Narmer (Nimrod) the rival lines of inheritance from Ham and Shem were recombined.

From that time forward the Middle East was lorded over by a single royal family who considered

themselves to be equally Semitic and Hamitic. The Bible literally traces the history of the dynasty

which ruled for a thousand years over the dual regions of Egypt and Mesopotamia and possibly

beyond.

In Genesis 23:6, Abraham is called “a mighty prince among them.” Although Abraham may not

have assumed the title of pharaoh, he was considered a king, both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt.

In Genesis 14, Abraham is given the pseudonym of Shem-eber king of Zeboiim (Memphis).

Shemeber is translated as “Illustrious.” However, it is also a compound name comprised of Shem

(Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). These two ancestors were not only kings, but also masters of

the sciences, law and philosophy. Abraham was placed in their company, not only with respect to

wisdom, but also in kingship. Zeboiim, that is Memphis, was the ancient seat of kingship and

wisdom in Egypt.

So, it now becomes apparent how a young prince named Abram, heir to the throne of this vast

empire, could have spent a great deal of time in India, learned eastern philosophy and meditation,

and could have been a native of India (named A-Brahm).

Abraham has been identified by some scholars as the strangely prominent and wide-ranging

Egyptian nobleman Thutmose. This “mighty prince” is traditionally referred to in literature by

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the Egyptian form of his name, Djehuty or Djehutymes, in order to avoid confusion with the

pharaohs named Thutmose.

The Egyptian Djehutymes and Greek form Thutmose have the meaning, “Child of Thoth” or “Thoth is

Born/Reborn.” Thoth was an Egyptian God, son of the great ‘Olden God’ Ptah, who it has been

determined was the Egyptian identity of the Sunerian God Enki, Thoth then correlates to Ningishzidda,

another son of Enki and brother to the Babylonian God Marduk. Since as we have concluded above that

Enki is also the Hebrew God Yahweh, it also makes sense that Abraham would be aligned with this god as

well.

During his long career, the “mighty prince” Djehuty held the wide-ranging titles of King in Damascus and

Nefrusy, Overseer of Priests in Middle Egypt, Viceroy of Nubia (Ethiopia), General of the Armies of Egypt,

Commissioner (‘overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory’), Scribe, and Director of the Treasury.

The priestly nature of Djehuty, his international orientation, great wealth and propensity for “reckoning”

were certainly the basis for the Biblical characterization of Abraham.

Mormonism, a “Christian” religion offers many details of the life of Abraham not found elsewhere in the

Bible. Some scholars have flatly stated that the source material used by the Mormons is taken directly

from the Egyptian Book of the Dead.

Abraham in Ethiopia

Abram, according to some traditions also traveled south to Ethiopia/Sheba to obtain more troops

sometime during the Five Year period he was said to have been staying in Egypt.

Abraham went on to the hill country, settling on the highest peak near Hebron, from where he could see

in all directions; and the Lord said unto him: “Go, cross the country in the length and breadth of it, for

unto thee shall I give it.”

Evidence of this can be found in the Qemant and Falasha traditions. The Qemant are described as the

remnants of Ancient Pagan Canaanites and the Falasha as “The Black Jews of Ethiopia.”

The Qemant folkloric tradition contains a narrative detailing the trip that brought both the

Falasha and their own “Canaanite” ancestors to the land of Cush; the following is a short

summary of an interview with Muluna Marsha, the Wambar, or High Priest of the Qemant.

“The founder of the Qemant religion was called Anayer. He came here to

Ethiopia so long ago. He came after seven years of famine, from his own

country, which was far away. As he traveled on the journey, he met the

founder of the Falasha religion, also traveling on the same journey”

Was the country of their birth the same? “Yes, it was the land of Canaan”

Similar themes can be uncovered in the bible regarding the “founder” of Judaism, the Hebrew

patriarch Abraham:

Genesis 12:9,10 Then Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south…there was

famine in the land.

Genesis 13:1 And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that

he had, and Lot with him, into the south.

And;

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Genesis 14:13 Now Abram was living near the terebinth of Mamre the Amorite, a

brother of Eschol and Aner all of whom were allied with Abram.

Here we have Abram traveling to the “the south,” allied with a “Canaanite” (the Amorites being

sons of Canaan) called Aner – a name which bears a striking similarity to the name Anayer of the

Qemant lore – and living near a terebinth or sacred grove;

Genesis 21:33 And Abram planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there

on the name of the LORD

It should be noted that the Qemant also venerate sacred groves, which they call degegna.

Continuing in this line of thought there is also a genealogy of the sons of Abraham by his second

wife Keturah that includes…

Genesis 25:3 Jokshan the father of Sheba…

If we take all of these cryptic similarities together, we can safely come to the conclusion that the “children

of the Ethiopians” are indeed as the children of Israel, children of Abram even, and that Abram through

his long forgotten wanderings founded a “cultural exchange” if you will, that lasted long after his death.

Amos 9:7 Are ye not as the children of the Ethiopians unto Me, O children of Israel,

saith the Lord.

The word, “Falasha,” means “stranger” or “immigrant” in Ge’ez, the classical ecclesiastical tongue of

Ethiopia. In the Falasha tradition it is said that they can trace their ancestry both through Abraham and

through Menelik, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

The Influence on the Muslims

In India, a tributary of the river Saraswathi is Ghaggar. Another tributary of the same river is Hakra.

According to Jewish traditions, Hagar was Sarai’s maidservant; the Moslems say she was an Egyptian

princess. Notice the similarities of Ghaggar, Hakra and Hagar.

The Bible also states that Ishmael, son of Hagar, and his descendants lived in India.

Genesis 25:17-18 “…Ishmael breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his

kin… They dwelt from Havilah (India), by Shur, which is close to Egypt, all

the way to Asshur.”

Another interesting fact is that the names of Isaac and Ishmael also seemingly derive from Sanskrit:

(Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = “Friend of Shiva.” (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-

Mahal = “Great Shiva.”

Genesis 25 mentions some descendants of Abraham’s concubine Ketura (Note: The Moslems claim that

Ketura is another name of Hagar.): Jokshan; Sheba; Dedan; Epher. Some descendants of Noah were

Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, and Ophir. These varying versions have caused a suspicion that the writers of the

Bible were trying to unite several different branches of Judaism.

There was no part of the ancient world, that wasn’t influenced by Abram’s religious views. For example,

Christians and Jews have been led to believe that Mohammed copied his teachings from Jewish sources.

While partially true this is not all.

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The truth is that in Mohammed’s time, Abraham’s theology was the foundation stone of all religious sects.

All Mohammed did was to purge them of idol worship as he believed Abraham once did, his goal was to

return his people to the “Primordial Religion”, the religion he believed Abraham belonged to, Hinduism!

The Koran clearly states that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but a “God-seeker” (3, 60). He

has the status of being one of the earlier messengers of God, together with Adam, Moses, Jesus and

others. According to Muslim theology, the message of Abraham was the very same as Mohammad’s,

before it become corrupted by the Jews.

Central in the Koran is the conflict between Abraham and his father Azar. Azar was an Idolater, and

Abraham turned away from him, when he could not make his father follow the message of God (19,

42-49).

One of the shrines in the Kaaba (the holiest place of worship in the Islamic Faith) was also dedicated to

the Hindu Creator God, Brahma, which is why the illiterate prophet of Islam claimed it was dedicated to

Abraham. The word “Abraham” is none other than a mispronunciation of the word Brahma.

The Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India. It was a sacred place before the

time of Mohammed and they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it for several centuries after his time.

It’s great celebrity as a sacred place before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted.

The city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built

by a colony from India; and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was

built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indus language, would be called Ishmaelistan.

Before Mohammed’s time, The Hinduism of the Arab peoples was called Tsaba. Tsaba or Saba – a

Sanskrit word, meaning “Assembly of the Gods”. Tsaba was also called Isha-ayalam (Shiva’s Temple).

The term Moslem or Moshe-ayalam (Shiva’s Temple) is just another name of Sabaism. The word has now

shrunk to Islam. Mohammed himself, being a member of the Quaryaish family, was at first a Tsabaist.

The Tsabaists did regarded Abraham as an avatar or divinely ordained teacher called Avather Brahmo

(Judge of the Underworld).

The Indian roots of the Star of David

Star of David – the Jewish emblem consists of two interlocking triangles, one pointing up, the other

down, which is a Trantic [Tantric?] Vedic symbol or Shri Yantra.

The “Heart Chakra” or the “Star of David”

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The hexagram, also known, as the “Star of David” is much older than Judaism! As an archetypal sign for

the sacred union of the opposite energies, it is the “yin-yang” of western civilization. Formed by the

intertwining of the “fire” and “water” triangles (the male “blade” and the female “chalice”) this symbol

represents the masculine and feminine principles in perfect union, the “sacred marriage” of the ancient

world. In India the symbol represents the “cosmic dance” of Shiva and Shakti.

According to certain Hindu beliefs the Heart Chakra is the middle chakra in a system of seven. It

symbolizes the two polarities of body and spirit as interpenetrating in perfect balance. The upward

pointing triangle symbolizes matter rising into spirit. The downward triangle represents spirit descending

into manifestation. To fully open the heart chakra we need to bring into balance the various aspects of our

existence, such as male and female, light and shadow, mind and body, practicality and spirituality.

The six points of the Star of David symbolize God’s rule over the universe in all six directions: north,

south, east, west, up and down. It is also said to represent the six attributes of God – power, wisdom,

majesty, love, mercy and justice.

Also in the Kabbalah, the two triangles represent the dichotomies inherent in man: good vs. evil, spiritual

vs. physical, etc. The two triangles may also represent the reciprocal relationship that exists between

people and God. The triangle pointing “up” symbolizes our good deeds, which go up to heaven, and then

activate a flow of goodness back down to the world, symbolized by the triangle pointing down.

Truth’s Avatar

Let the light of the Truth burn the ignorance from your mind!

Signs used in the Logo of the Truth Seekers Explained

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“Signs”, however, are not “Symbols”. A Sign points in one, unmistakable direction through a

meaning authoritatively invested in it by its establisher. A symbol bears a built-in ambiguity, and will be

interpreted pretty much at will by observers according to their own personal predilections, mindsets,

experiences, etc.

Our Caption, “Viator Ab Veritas” translated from Latin means “Wayfarers in Truth”. This phrase

was chosen for its double connotation of both “Truth Seekers” and for those who are searching for the

“Way”. It was rendered in Latin because Latin is Cool!

The snake biting its own tail, the Greeks called it the Ouroboros, which

means “Tail Eater.” The Ouroboros is a sign of renewal, infinity, and the

Eternal Return. In mythology, the Ouroboros is any image of a snake,

worm, serpent, or dragon biting its own tail.

 Generally taking on a circular form, the symbol is representative of

many broad concepts. Time, life continuity, completion, the repetition of history, the self-sufficiency

of nature and the rebirth of the earth can all be seen within the circular boundaries of the Ouroboros.

 It appears in many shapes and forms in many differing cultures throughout history. Different

societies have shaped the Ouroboros to fit their own belief systems and purposes.

 The image has been seen in Japan, India, utilized in Greek alchemic texts, European woodcuts,

Native American Indian tribes and even by the Aztecs.

 It has, at times, been directly associated to such varying symbols as the Roman god Janus, the

Oriental Ying Yang, and the Biblical serpent of the garden of Eden.

We have chose the “fallen-eight” version of the Ouroboros to provide emphasis on infinity, the “never

ending” cycle and strategically placed it encircling the “earthly symbols” and inside the “celestial

symbols”.

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The Sun/Moon sign was chosen as a representation of the Sumerian Gods/

Goddesses. The Sumerians are currently credited as the first known civilization and

mostly used Celestial Symbols to denote their Gods/Goddesses.

It’s position in the top left portion of the Ouroboros denotes it as one of the oldest of

the Ancient religions and which through diffusion of knowledge through time, all

other religions have taken their baselines from.

In the most Ancient writings to date the Symbol of a Cross is used to depict Nibiru, the Home Planet of

the Gods.

The Ankh, with its looped top, is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic that when translated

means life or life-giving power.

It is a sign found widely in Egyptian art, where gods and goddesses are shown clutching the

Ankh, the key to the afterlife and immortality.

  • ·  This symbol was also known as the Key of the Nile, which provided water for

Egypt to survive, thus further reinforcing the image of fertility and reproduction.

  • ·  It symbolizes the ability for life to evolve and be successful, and reminds us that life on

earth is simply one aspect of creation, and that we are all eternal beings.

  • ·  Additionally this stylized symbol of a cross was also a symbol of the Neteru, the Egyptian

pantheon of gods, scholars are now convinced that the Egyptian Gods parallel the Indian and

Sumerian gods and the symbol of the “Cross” was originally the symbol for the Planet of the

crossing, Nibiru home of the gods.

Its positioning also denotes its relationship to India and Sumer and puts it on a relative timeline with the

Indus Valley Civilization (Hindu) and the Far Eastern Civilizations (China).

This Hindu Om Sign is actually a sacred syllable representing the Absolute – the

source of all existence. The source, in itself, is incomprehensible so a symbol becomes

mandatory to help us realize the Unknowable.

  • ·  The syllable Om occurs even in English words having a similar meaning,

for instance, ‘omniscience’, ‘omnipotent’, ‘omnipresent’. Thus Om is also used to signify divinity

and authority. Its similarity with the Latin ‘M’ as also to the Greek letter ‘Omega’ is discernable.

  • ·  Even the word ‘Amen’ used by Christians to conclude a prayer seems to be akin to Om.

Its inclusion in the center of the left portion of the Ouroboros simply denotes it as one of the “Older”

religions. Hinduism closely ties in with the facts that have been left to us in the writings of the Sumerians

about the periodic Earthly cataclysms and the “re-birth” of the Earth, the Yugas or “Great Ages”.

The Yin/Yang Sign represents all the opposite principles one finds in the universe. It

denotes that all phenomena eventually changes into its opposite in an eternal cycle of

reversal.

  • ·  The Yin/Yang was derived from the I-Ching, a Chinese philosophical work

combining the rules of the natural and celestial world with those of human

affairs.

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  • ·  As with the Ouroboros the Yin/Yang represents time, life continuity, completion, the

repetition of history, the self-sufficiency of nature and the rebirth of the earth can all be seen

within the circular boundaries.

It was selected not as a religious symbol but as a symbol of an ancient philosophy that closely ties in with

the facts that have been left to us in the writings of the Indians and the Sumerians about the periodic

Earthly cataclysms and the “re-birth” of the Earth.

Though vilified in most parts of the world after World War II, the Swastika is actually a

sign of good luck and prosperity.

The word “SWASTIKA” is derived from the Sanskrit word: “SVASTIKAH”, which means

“Being Fortunate”.

Almost every race, religion and continent honored the swastika, possibly a perfect example of the

universal spread of a symbol thru the collective unconscious.

  • ·  The American Indians, Chinese, Hindus, Buddhists, Vikings, Greeks, Romans, Celts,

Anglo-Saxons, Mayans, Aztecs, Persians, Christians, and Neolithic tribes have used it.

  • ·  There are even Jewish Swastikas found in ancient synagogues side-by-side with the Star of

David (which is not too surprising considering that the Star of David was originally Hindu too).

  • ·  The Swastika was associated with the hammer of Thor, which returned to him like a

boomerang, the footprints of Buddha, the emblem of Shiva, Apollo, Jupiter, and even Jesus

Christ!

  • ·  The Swastika was an early Christian symbol and is found in the catacombs in Rome.
  • ·  Hindus and Buddhists to this day still revere the Swastika as a sacred sign.
  • ·  The Jains make the sign of the swastika in the air similar to the way Christians make the

sign of the cross.

This Zoroasterian Icon, the Faravahar is a sign of the soul’s

progression through many lives.

The man springing out of the central disc symbolizes the human

soul.

  • · His upper hand is extended in a blessing, pointing

upward to keep us in mind of higher things.

  • · The head of the man reminds one of God -given free will.
  • · The ring held in the man’s hand symbolizes the cycles of rebirths on this earth and/or in other

planes of reality.

  • · The central circle, which as a circle has no end, symbolizes eternity.
  • · The two wings are the energies that help the soul to evolve and progress.
  • · There are five layers of feathers in the wings and these five layers signify the five Gatha hymns of

the Prophet, the five divisions of the Zoroastrian day, the five senses, and also five esoteric stages

that the soul must pass through on its way to God.

  • · The two streamers extending out from the central disc symbolize the two choices, or paths, that

face human beings: the choice of good or the choice of evil.

  • · The tail is the “rudder” of the soul, for balance between the forces of Good and Evil.
  • · There are three layers of feathers in the tail, which stand for the Threefold Path of Good

Thoughts, Words, and Deeds.

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Its inclusion above the “newer” religious Icons denotes that the religions below it were in part derived

from it.

The “Heart Chakra” or the “Star of David”

The hexagram, also known as the “Star of David” is much older than Judaism! As an

archetypal sign for the sacred union of the opposite energies, it is the “yin-yang” of

western civilization. Formed by the intertwining of the “fire” and “water” triangles (the

male “blade” and the female “chalice”) this symbol represents the masculine and feminine principles in

perfect union, the “sacred marriage” of the ancient world. In India the symbol represents the “cosmic

dance” of Shiva and Shakti.

  • ·  According to certain Hindu beliefs the Heart Chakra is the middle chakra in a system of

seven. It symbolizes the two polarities of body and spirit as interpenetrating in perfect balance.

The upward pointing triangle symbolizes matter rising into spirit. The downward triangle

represents spirit descending into manifestation. To fully open the heart chakra we need to bring

into balance the various aspects of our existence, such as male and female, light and shadow,

mind and body, practicality and spirituality.

  • · The six points of the Star of David symbolize God’s rule over the universe in all six directions:

north, south, east, west, up and down. It is also said to represent the six attributes of God –

power, wisdom, majesty, love, mercy and justice.

  • · Additionally in the Kabbalah, the two triangles represent the dichotomies inherent in man: good

vs. evil, spiritual vs. physical, etc. The two triangles may also represent the reciprocal relationship

that exists between people and God. The triangle pointing “up” symbolizes our good deeds, which

go up to heaven, and then activate a flow of goodness back down to the world, symbolized by the

triangle pointing down.

This Symbol was chosen to represent the Hebrew Religion but also as an example how certain “Sacred”

symbols recur throughout time. Its position below the Faravahar is to show the relationship between the

two religions. The Hebrews in developing their monotheistic religion borrowed heavily from Zoroasterian

concepts.

The Cross is included as part of our “Logo” for three reasons.

1. 1. – It is the internationally known symbol of Christianity.

2. 2. – The cross was originally a Sumerian symbol for the planet of their

gods, the “Planet of the Crossing” Nibiru home of the Gods.

3. 3. – It provides another example of Knowledge Diffusion, i.e., Hebrew

dogma and beliefs being adopted and transformed.

The celestial significance of it is as a representation of the earth’s seasons; each branch of the Christian

cross symbolizes a season.

  • ·  The top: the shortest day of the winter solstice.
  • ·  The bottom: the longest day of the summer solstice.
  • ·  The two equal arms: the two equal days of the fall and spring equinox.

Early Christian crosses were “T” shaped representing the “Tau” which stood for the god Tammuz.

The Crescent Moon and Star sign was chosen as the best known representation of

the Religion of Islam.

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Originally just a Crescent appeared on the flag of the city of Byzantium (Constantinople, modern

Istanbul).

In 330 CE, Constantine rededicated the city to the Virgin Mary, whose star symbol was added to the

previous crescent.

Mahomet II first hoisted it on behalf of the Muslims after the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

Muslims have used it more and more ever since as a way to identify themselves.

Though in actuality the Muslim faith does not have a specifically “official” Icon of the religion as such.

Once again as with some of the other symbols it was chosen for usage as yet another example of the

“Diffusion of Knowledge” behind the spread of different worldwide religions stemming from India and

Sumer.

The Star added by Constantine in the name of the Virgin Mary was a public relations stunt. Historians

and Theologians know that Constantine, though credited with the establishment of the “Holy Roman

Empire” did so for the simple reason that Christianity was causing the fall of the Roman Empire. In a

mentality of, “if you can’t beat em join em”, Constantine re-united his failing Empire under the banner of

the new religion.

Constantine was still a dedicated believer in the “Olden Gods” and though publicly proclaiming the

addition of the Star to the Crescent flag of Constantinople in the name of “Mary” or the “Mother of God”

he was really dedicating it to the “Mother of All” Ningal/Nikhal wife of the Moon-God Sin.

Keep in Mind that when Mohammed preached to the Meccans he did not introduce a new god, he only

proclaimed that of their many gods, Allah, was the greatest and only god. The Meccans, therefore could

not accuse Mohammed of preaching of a different god than they knew. He merely demanded that they

believe in one god, not many as were accepted before. There are many who speak of Allah as the Moon-

God as represented by the symbol of the crescent, the symbol of Islam. The crescent moon is on mosques

and minarets, is found on the flags of Islamic nations and the month of Ramadan begins and ends the fast

with the appearance of the crescent moon. In fact many Sumerian Moon-Gods used the crescent moon as

a personal symbol.

A Pentagram is a common symbol mainly used by Pagans and Wiccans.

The lower four points of the star represent the four elements of Earth (fire, water,

air, and earth) and the top point represents the presence of the Mother Goddess

and/or the Green Man (The Great God).

The circle around the star states the unity between the five of them.

This symbol is not to be confused with the “Anti-pentagram” which is a common symbol used in

Satanism. (The 2 pointed up pentagram is Pythagorean and Eastern Star. It represents a pentagonal

House with 5 blazing angles surrounding it, the meanings are very Eastern, the 5 being the same as the 5

Dharmas).

This symbol was chosen for its goodness and purity. The Pagan religions are a blend of what are

considered the best parts of the ancient religions.

The Caduceus is incorporated on the outside of the Ouroboros.

This symbol also originated in Sumeria and was often associated with Enki/Ea.

According to Sumerian texts Enki was the firstborn son of Anu, the “King” of Nibiru.

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Enki is portrayed as the co-creator (along with his half-sister Ninhursag) and advocate for humans.

Enki was the “God” who warned Utnapishtim/Ziusudra (better known as Noah) about the flood and gave

him directions to build a watertight Ark and told him to preserve the seeds of every living thing. Which

makes more sense than bringing all animals Two by two into a space that small.

The Zodiac is incorporated on the outside of the Ouroboros as a Celestial reference, and also to denote the

25,920 year cycle of Precession.

The Earth passes through the same spot in space once every 25,920 years. This time period can be called

the “Great Year”.

This of course was information provided to us by India and Sumer along with the original Zodiac itself.