Ismael itu Pere Adam (“Manusia Keledai Liar”-Yahudi-Kristen) atau “Para Adam” (“Orang Subur”-Samaria)?
7 NOVEMBER · PUBLIK
Tafsir Kejadian 16: 12: Ismael adalah Pere Adam (“Manusia Keledai Liar” dan variasinya dalam Kitab Yahudi-Kristen) atau “Para Adam” (“Manusia Subur dalam Torah Samaria)?
Salam sejahtera atas orang-orang yang diberi petunjuk
Di dalam Alkitab Yahudi-Kristen Kitab Kejadian 16: 12, Ismael disebut sebagai Keledai Liar, hal ini sering menjadi sebuah ejekan dari beberapa orang awam yang membaca ayat ini kepada orang Arab bahkan kepada umat Islam sebagai kaum yang liar, buas dan suka bertikai. Benarkah hal tersebut? Benarkah istilah “keledai liar” bermakna negatif? Benarkah Ismael dijuluki “Keledai Liar” dalam “Taurat”? Mari kita buktikan:
English Version of Genesis 16: 11-12
A. TERJEMAHAN DARI TEKS SEPTUAGINTA DAN MASORET (ALKITAB YAHUDI-KRISTEN)
1. New International Version (OT= 1978, NT= 1973, Protestan)
The angel of the LORD also said to her: “You are now pregnant and you will give birth to a son. You shall name him Ishmael, for the LORD has heard of your misery. He will be A WILD DONKEY OF A MAN; his hand will be against everyone and everyone’s hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers.”
2. New Living Translation (1996)
And the angel also said, “You are now pregnant and will give birth to a son. You are to name him Ishmael (which means ‘God hears’), for the LORD has heard your cry of distress. This son of yours will be A WILD MAN, as untamed as A WILD DONKEY! He will raise his fist against everyone, and everyone will be against him. Yes, he will live in open hostility against all his relatives.”
3. English Standard Version (2001 dengan revisi di 2007 dan 2011, Apokrif di 2009)
And the angel of the LORD said to her, “Behold, you are pregnant and shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, because the LORD has listened to your affliction. He shall be A WILD DONKEY OF A MAN, his hand against everyone and everyone’s hand against him, and he shall dwell over against all his kinsmen.”
4. New American Standard Bible (Protestan, OT 1971, NT= 1963)
The angel of the LORD said to her further, “Behold, you are with child, And you will bear a son; And you shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has given heed to your affliction. “He will be a wild donkey of a man, His hand will be against everyone, And everyone’s hand will be against him; And he will live to the east of all his brothers.”
5. King James Bible (1611)
And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. And he will be a WILD MAN; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
6. Holman Christian Standard Bible (2003, Protestan)
Then the Angel of the LORD said to her: You have conceived and will have a son. You will name him Ishmael, for the LORD has heard your cry of affliction. This man will be like a WILD DONKEY. His hand will be against everyone, and everyone’s hand will be against him; he will live at odds with all his brothers.
7. International Standard Version (2011)
“Look, you are pregnant and will give birth to a son,” the angel of the LORD continued to say to her. “You will name him Ishmael, because the LORD has heard your cry of misery. He’ll be a wild donkey of a man. He’ll be against everyone, and everyone will be against him. He will live in conflict with all of his relatives.”
8. NET Bible (2005, interdenominasi dan Protestan Injili)
Then the LORD’s angel said to her, “You are now pregnant and are about to give birth to a son. You are to name him Ishmael, for the LORD has heard your painful groans. He will be a wild donkey of a man. He will be hostile to everyone, and everyone will be hostile to him. He will live away from his brothers.”
9. GOD’S WORD® Translation (1995)
Then the Messenger of the LORD said to her, “You are pregnant, and you will give birth to a son. You will name him Ishmael [God Hears], because the LORD has heard your cry of distress. He will be as free and wild as an untamed donkey. He will fight with everyone, and everyone will fight with him. He will have conflicts with all his relatives.”
10. Jewish Publication Society Tanakh 1917 (Yahudi Reformasi dan Konservatif)
And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. And he shall be a wild ass of a man: his hand shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren.’
11. New American Standard 1977 (OT= 1971, OB=1963)
The angel of the LORD said to her further,
“Behold, you are with child,
And you shall bear a son;
And you shall call his name Ishmael,
Because the LORD has given heed to your affliction.
“And he will be a wild donkey of a man,
His hand will be against everyone,
And everyone’s hand will be against him;
And he will live to the east of all his brothers.”
12. Jubilee Bible 2000
And the angel of the LORD yet said unto her, Behold, thou art with child and shalt bear a son and shalt call his name Ishmael, because the LORD has heard thy affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
13. King James 2000 Bible
And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, you are with child, and shall bear a son, and shall call his name Ishmael; because the LORD has heard your affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell over against all his brethren.
14. American King James Version (1999)
And the angel of the LORD said to her, Behold, you are with child and shall bear a son, and shall call his name Ishmael; because the LORD has heard your affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brothers.
15. American Standard Version (Protestan antar denominasi, OT=1901. OB=1900)
And the angel of Jehovah said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because Jehovah hath heard thy affliction. And he shall be as a wild ass among men; his hand’shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell over against all his brethren.
16. Douay-Rheims Bible (OT= 1585, OB= 1582, Gereja Katholik Roma)
And again: Behold, said he, thou art with child, and thou shalt bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Ismael, because the Lord hath heard thy affliction. He shall be a wild man: his hand will be against all men, and all men’s hands against him: and he shall pitch his tents over against all his brethren.
17. Darby Bible Translation (OT= 1890, OB= 1867 dengan revisi pada 1872 dan 1884)
And the Angel of Jehovah said to her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael, because Jehovah hath hearkened to thy affliction. And he will be a wild-ass of a man, his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell before the face of all his brethren.
18. English Revised Version (revisi KJV, OT=1885, OB=1881, Apokrif 1894)
And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. And he shall be as a wild-ass among men; his hand shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
19. Webster’s Bible Translation (revisi KJB 1833)
And the angel of the LORD said to her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
20. World English Bible (2000)
The angel of Yahweh said to her, “Behold, you are with child, and will bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard your affliction. He will be like a wild donkey among men. His hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him. He will live opposite all of his brothers.”
21. Young’s Literal Translation (1862)
and the messenger of Jehovah saith to her, ‘Behold thou art conceiving, and bearing a son, and hast called his name Ishmael, for Jehovah hath hearkened unto thine affliction; and he is a wild-ass man, his hand against every one, and every one’s hand against him — and before the face of all his brethren he dwelleth.’
22. Common English Bible w/ Apocrypha (Gereja Episkopal, OT=2011, OB= 2010)
The LORD’s messenger said to her, “You are now pregnant and will give birth to a son. You will name him Ishmael because the LORD has heard about your harsh treatment. He will be a wild mule of a man; he will fight everyone, and they will fight him. He will live at odds with all his relatives.”
23. The Bible in Basic English (OT=1949, OB= 1941)
And the angel of the Lord said, See, you are with child and will give birth to a son, to whom you will give the name Ishmael, because the ears of the Lord were open to your sorrow. And he will be like a mountain ass among men; his hand will be against every man and every man’s hand against him, and he will keep his place against all his brothers.
24. Good News Translation w/ Apocrypha (OT= 1976, OB= 1966)
You are going to have a son, and you will name him Ishmael, because the Lord has heard your cry of distress. But your son will live like a wild donkey; he will be against everyone, and everyone will be against him. He will live apart from all his relatives.”
25. New World Translation Of The Holy Scripture (1961, Jehovah’s Witnesses/Saksi-Saksi Yehuwa)
Jehovah’s angel added: “Here you are pregnant, and you will give birth to a son, and you must name him Ish’ma.-el, for Jehovah has heard your affliction. His hand will be against everyone, and everyone’s will be against him, and he will dwell opposite all his brothers
26. Orthodox Jewish Bible (2002, Yahudi Mesianik)
And the Malach Hashem said unto her, See, thou art with child and shalt bear ben, and shalt call shmo Yishmael; because Hashem shema thy oni (misery). And he will be a pere adam; his yad will be against kol, and kol yad against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
27. The Complete Jewish Bible (1998 Yahudi Mesianik)
The angel of ADONAI said to her, “Look, you are pregnant, and you will give birth to a son. You are to call him Yishma’el [God pays attention] because ADONAI has paid attention to your misery. He will be a wild donkey of a man, with his hand against everyone and everyone’s hand against him, living his life at odds with all his kinsmen.”
28. New Revised Standard Version (1989: National Council of The Churches of Christs, Terutama Protestan dan GKR)
And the angel of the LORD said to her, “Now you have conceived and shall bear a son; you shall call him Ishmael, for the LORD has given heed to your affliction. He shall be a wild ass of a man, with his hand against everyone, and everyone’s hand against him; and he shall live at odds with all his kin.”
29. Lexham English Bible (2010: Logos Bible Software)
Then the Messenger of the LORD said to her, “You are pregnant, and you will give birth to a son. You will name him Ishmael [God Hears], because the LORD has heard your cry of distress. He will be as free and wild as an untamed donkey. He will fight with everyone, and everyone will fight with him. He will have conflicts with all his relatives.”
30. Revised English Bible (1989, Protestan dan GKR)
The angel of the LORD went on: “You are with child and will bear a son. You are to name him Ishmael, because the LORD has heard of your ill-treatment. He will be like the wild ass; his hand will be against everyone and everyone’s hand against him; and he will live at odds with all his kin.”
31. New Jerusalem Bible (1985: Katholik Roma)
“Then the angel of Yahweh said to her: “Now you have conceived and will bear a son, and you shall name him Ishmael, for Yahweh has heard your cries of distress. A wild donkey of a man he will be, his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him, living his life in defiance of all his kinsmen.”
32. Revised English Version (Biblical Unitarian, Spirit and Truth Fellowship)
“The angel of Yahweh said to her, “Behold, you are with child, and will bear a son, and you are to call his name Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard your affliction. He will be like a wild donkey among men. His hand will be against every man and every man’s hand will be against him”
33. The Living Torah (1981 oleh Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, Yahudi Ortodoks)
“[Still another] angel of God said to her’You are pregnant, and will give birth to a son. You must name him Ishmael, for God has heard your prayer. He will be a rebel. His hand will be against everyone, and everyone ‘s hand will be against him. Still, he will dwell undisturbed near all his brothers.”
*Rebel (pemberontak) (Targum; cf. Ibn Ezra). Pereh Adam dalam bahasa Ibrani. Pereh artinya keledai liar dan oleh karena itu dapat diterjemahkan “a wild donkey of a man” (seekor keledai liar manusia) (Targum Yonathan; Ramban). Rashi menafsirkan kata tersebut berarti “outdoor man” atau “ seorang manusia yang akan tinggal di Paran”
Alkitab Bahasa Indonesia Kejadian 16: 12:
1. Terjemahan Baru 1974
Seorang laki-laki yang lakunya seperti keledi liar, demikianlah nanti anak itu; tangannya akan melawan tiap-tiap orang dan tangan tiap-tiap orang akan melawan dia, dan di tempat kediamannya ia akan menentang semua saudaranya
2. Alkitab Yang Terbuka Draft
Ia akan menjadi seperti seekor keledai liar; tangannya akan melawan setiap orang, dan tangan setiap orang akan melawannya. Dan, ia akan tinggal berhadap-hadapan dengan semua saudaranya.
3. Terjemahan Lama 1954
Maka kanak-kanak itu akan menjadi seorang bagai keledai hutan lakunya dan tangannya akan melawan segala orang dan tangan segala orangpun akan melawan dia; maka iapun akan duduk pada sebelah timur segala saudaranya.
4. Bahasa Indonesia Sehari-hari 1985
Tetapi anakmu itu akan hidup seperti keledai liar; ia akan melawan setiap orang, dan setiap orang akan melawan dia. Ia akan hidup terpisah dari semua sanak saudaranya.”
5. MILT 2008
Dan dia akan menjadi manusia keledai liar, tangannya melawan setiap orang dan tangan setiap orang melawan dia; dan dia akan tinggal berhadap-hadapan dengan semua saudaranya.”
6. Brouwerius2
Lagi dia adda jadi orang brani, dia pounja tangan adda backalei dẽgan ſegalla orang, lagi ſegalla orang pounja tangan adda backalei dengan dia, lagi dia doudoc adapan moucka deri dia pounja ſoudara lacki lacki ſamoa.
7. Leydekker
Sanistjaja ‘ija ‘itu ‘akan djadi sa`awrang hutan: tangannja kalakh lawan sakalijen, dan tangan sakalijen kalakh lawan dija: maka dimuka sakalijen sudaranja pawn ‘ija ‘akan dijam.
8. Shellabear Draft
Maka ia akan menjadi di antara manusia seperti seekor keledai hutan lakunya dan tangannya akan melawan orang sekalian dan tangan orang sekalian pun akan melawan dia maka ia pun akan duduk di hadapan segala saudaranya.”
9. Ende
Ia akan djadi seperti keledai liar. Tangannja melawan sekalian orang dan tangan sekalian orangpun melawan dia; iapun akan tinggal berhadap-hadapan dengan saudara-saudaranja”.
10. Versi Mudah Dibaca
Ismael menjadi liar dan bebas seperti keledai liar. Ia akan berpindah-pindah dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain dan berkemah dekat saudara-saudaranya. Ia akan melawan setiap orang, dan setiap orang menjadi lawannya.”
11. Kitab Suci Terjemahan Dunia Baru (Komunitas Saksi-Saksi Yehuwa)
Mengenai putramu, ia akan menjadi seperti zebra. Tangannya akan melawan setiap orang, dan tangan setiap orang akan melawannya; dan ia akan berdiam di hadapan muka semua saudaranya.”
B. TERJEMAHAN DARI TEKS SAMARIA
1. Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah (Taurat Milik Kaum Samaria):
And the Angel of Shehmaa said to her, I will greatly multiply your seed, that they will be too many count. And the Angel of Shehmaa said to her, Behold, you are with a child, And you will bear a son. And you shall call his name Yishmael. Because Shehmaa has heard your affliction. He will be FERTILE OF MAN. His hand WILL BE WITH EVERYONE. AND EVERYONE’S HAND WILL BE WITH HIM. And he will live among all his brother.
Jadi kita klasifikasikan terlebih dahulu:
Menurut berbagai terjemahan salinan teks Yahudi-Kristen VS teks Samaria berbahasa Inggris, maka Ismael adalah:
1) Teks Masoret:
a. “A Wild Donkey” (seekor keledai liar): HCSB, Good News Translation w/ Apocrypha
b. . “A Wild Donkey of a Man” (seekor keledai liar manusia) :NIV, ESV, ISV, NET Bible,
NAS 1977 , NASV, NWJ
c. “A Wild Donkey Among Men” (seekor keledai liar di antara manusia): WEB, REV
d. “a wild ass of a man (seekor keledai liar manusia): JPS Tanakh 1917, Darby Bible Translation, NRSV
e. “a wild ass among men” (seekor keledai liar di antara manusia) ASV, ERV
f. “a wild-ass man” (manusia keledai liar): YLT
g. “the wild ass” (keledai liar): REB
h. “a mountain ass among men” (seekor keledai gunung di antara manusia): BBE
i. “as free and wild as an untamed donkey” (bagai bebas dan liar seperti keledai tak jinak): GOD’S WORD® Translation, LEB
j. “a wild mule of a man” (bagal –peranakan kuda dan keledai- liar manusia): Common English Bible w/ Apocrypha
k. “a wild man” (manusia liar): King James Bible, NLT, Jubilee Bible 2000, King James 2000 Bible, American King James Version, Douay-Rheims Bible, Webster’s Bible Translation
l. “a rebel” (pemberontak): TLT
m. “a Pere Adam” (lihat penjelasan di bawah): Orthodox Jewish Bible
n. “Seorang laki-laki yang lakunya seperti keledai liar”: TB
o. “seperti (seekor) keledai liar”: AYT Draft, Ende
p. “hidup seperti keledai liar”: BIS
q. “manusia keledai liar”: MILT
r. “liar dan bebas seperti keledai liar”: VMD
s. “orang brani”: Brouwerius2
t. “sa`awrang hutan”: Leydekker
u. “di antara manusia seperti seekor keledai hutan lakunya”: Shellabear Draft,
v. “seperti zebra”: TDB
Teks Samaria:
a. “Fertile Of Man” (Orang Subur) : Israelite Samaritan Version of Torah
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Hebrew,
וְהוּא יִהְיֶה פֶּרֶא אָדָם יָדֹו בַכֹּל וְיַד כֹּל בֹּו וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־אֶחָיו יִשְׁכֹּן׃
Translit, VEHU YIHYEH PERE ‘ADAM YADO VAKOL VEYAD KOL BO VE’AL-PENEY KHOL-‘EKHAV YISYKON
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Menurut Artikel Sarapanpagi.org
Kita bandingkan dengan :
* Ayub 6:5, 11:12, 24:5
6:5 LAI TB, Meringkikkah keledai liar (PERE’) di tempat rumput muda, atau melenguhkah lembu dekat makanannya?
KJV, Doth the wild ass bray when he hath grass? or loweth the ox over his fodder?
Hebrew,
הֲיִנְהַק־פֶּרֶא עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא אִם יִגְעֶהשֹּׁ־ור עַל־בְּלִילֹו׃
Translit, HAYINHAQ-PERE’ ‘ALEY-DESYE’ ‘IM YIG’EH-SYOR ‘AL-BELILO
11:12 LAI TB, Jikalau orang dungu dapat mengerti, maka anak keledai liar (PERE’) pun dapat lahir sebagai manusia.
KJV, For vain men would be wise, though man be born like a wild ass’s colt.
Hebrew,
וְאִישׁ נָבוּב יִלָּבֵב וְעַיִר פֶּרֶא אָדָם יִוָּלֵד׃
Translit, VE’ISY NAVUV YILAVEV VE’AYIR PERE’ ‘ADAM YIVALED
24:5 LAI TB, Sesungguhnya, seperti keledai liar (PERE’) di padang gurun mereka keluar untuk bekerja mencari apa-apa di padang belantara sebagai makanan bagi anak-anak mereka.
KJV, Behold, as wild asses in the desert, go they forth to their work; rising betimes for a prey: the wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children.
Hebrew,
הֵן פְּרָאִים ׀ בַּמִּדְבָּר יָצְאוּ בְּפָעֳלָם מְשַׁחֲרֵי לַטָּרֶף עֲרָבָה לֹו לֶחֶם לַנְּעָרִים׃
Translit, HEN PERA’IM BAMIDBAR YATSE’U BEFO’OLAM MESYAKHAREY LATAREF ‘ARAVAH LO LEKHEM LANE’ARIM
Kata Ibrani ‘פרא – PERE’ jika berdiri sendiri memang dapat bermakna “keledai liar” seperti dalam Ayub 39:5-8, hal ini didukung oleh amanat ayat-ayat itu.
* Ayub 39:5-8
39:8 LAI TB, Siapakah yang mengumbar keledai liar, atau siapakah yang membuka tali tambatan keledai jalang?
Jewish Publication Society Tanakh, Who hath sent out the wild ass free? Or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?
39:5 KJV, Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?
Hebrew,
מִי־שִׁלַּח פֶּרֶא חָפְשִׁי וּמֹסְרֹות עָרֹוד מִי פִתֵּחַ׃
Translit, MI-SYILAKH PERE’ (פרא) KHAFSYI UMOSROT ‘AROD MI FITEAKH
39:9 Kepadanya telah Kuberikan tanah dataran sebagai tempat kediamannya dan padang masin sebagai tempat tinggalnya.
39:10 Ia menertawakan keramaian kota, tidak mendengarkan teriak si penggiring;
39:11 ia menjelajah gunung-gunung padang rumputnya, dan mencari apa saja yang hijau.
Jenis keledai “PERE'” ini kini dikenal sebagai keledai hutan (‘Equus onager’) dan masih dapat ditemukan di bagian-bagian Asia Barat dan Tengah.
Maka kata ‘פרא – PERE’ mungkin lebih baik diterjemahkan dengan ‘keledai hutan’. karena kata ‘liar’ dalam bahasa Indonesia mempunyai konotasi yang kurang baik.
Kejadian 16:12 di atas menulis פרא אדם ; PERE ADAM bermakna manusia yang bebas mengembara dan berburu di padang pasir. Dalam budaya Yahudi, hal tersebut merupakan pujian atas sifat tangguh (bandingkan gelar bagi salah satu leluhur suku Israel yaitu ISAKHAR, lihat di bawah).
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The Ramban interprets פרא אדם in the following way:
The correct interpretation is that פרא אדם is a construct form meaning that he will be a wild-ass man accustomed to the wilderness going forth to his work, seeking for food, devouring all and being devoured by all. (Ramban: Commentary on the Torah, Vol 1, Genesis, Charles Chavel trans., Shilo Publishing House, New York, 1971, p 214.)
Rabbi Hirsch says that a wildman cannot bear constraint. He who has no constraint, will be contrary to and in everyone’s face. We add that constraint here can also be understood as the constraint of reason. Rabbi Hirsch writes
He will quietly take up and maintain his [unreasonable] position in spite of all his brothers. Nobody will be his friend and still nobody will dare to oppose him. (Samson Raphael Hirsch, The Pentateuch, Genesis, Translation and Commentary, Isaac Levy trans., Judaica Press, Ltd, Gatehead 1989, p. 288)
Bibel mencatat, setelah terusir dari rumah atas tuntutan Sarai, Ismail dan ibunya (Hagar) hampir mati kehausan di padang gurun Bersyeba. Karena kesabaran, ketangguhan dan besarnya iman kepada Allah SWT, Ismail AS bisa bertahan hidup di gurun pasir yang panas dengan segala rintangan hidup yang keras. Pengalaman inilah yang membentuk karakternya menjadi sosok yang sabar, tegar, optimis, tawakkal, tegas dan lurus dalam menegakkan prinsip kebenaran.
Malaikat Tuhan pun menunjukkan kepada Hagar sebuah sumur sebagai jawaban atas doa Ismail. Di kemudian hari Ismail tumbuh menjadi seorang pemanah, menikahi seorang wanita Mesir dan memperanakkan 12 orang raja (25:12-16). Buah dari ketangguhan ini, Allah menyertai Ismail hingga dewasa menjadi nabi dan rasul-Nya (Kejadian 21:20).
Tak sedikit kalangan Kristen yang menafsirkan Ishak dan Ismael adalah seteru berdasarkan ayat tersebut, sehingga menurun kepada keturunan mereka di kemudian hari. Anggapan itu tidak benar, sebab kedua saudara itu sama-sama memakamkan ayah mereka, Nabi Ibrahim ketika wafat pada usia 175 tahun (Kejadian 25:7-9). Ini adalah keakraban dua nabi saudara sedarah.
Keakraban ini berlangsung hingga di kemudian hari, salah seorang keturunan Ismail menjadi panglima pasukan Daud (2 Samuel 17:24-25).
Jadi, tuduhan sebagian misionaris Kristen terhadap bangsa Arab, Nabi Muhammad dan umat Islam sebagai kaum keledai liar yang jahat adalah tuduhan yang ngawur dan tidak Alkitabiah.
Berdasarkan Alkitab (Bibel), justru bangsa Yahudilah yang diilustrasikan sebagai binatang buas.
“Yehuda (anak Ishak, pen) adalah seperti anak singa: setelah menerkam, engkau naik ke suatu tempat yang tinggi, hai anakku; ia meniarap dan berbaring seperti singa jantan atau seperti singa betina; siapakah yang berani membangunkannya?” (Kejadian 49:9).
“Lihat, suatu bangsa (Israel, pen), yang bangkit seperti singa betina, dan yang berdiri tegak seperti singa jantan, yang tidak membaringkan dirinya, sebelum ia memakan mangsanya dan meminum darah dari yang mati dibunuhnya” (Bilangan 23:24).
Karena bangsa Yahudi sudah sangat keterlaluan dalam bermaksiat dan berbuat dosa, maka murka Tuhan pun turun sehingga Dia menghancurkan Yahudi seperti melenyapkan bangsa Israel:
“Lalu berfirmanlah TUHAN: “Juga orang Yehuda akan Kujauhkan dari hadapan-Ku seperti Aku menjauhkan orang Israel, dan Aku akan membuang kota yang Kupilih ini, yakni Yerusalem, dan rumah ini, walaupun Aku telah berfirman tentangnya: Nama-Ku akan tinggal di sana!” (2 Raja-raja 23:27).
Isakhar, putra kelima Yakub dari Lea, dikemukakan sebagai seorang yang kuat bagaikan keledai yang kuat dan menyukai ketenangan. Kata yang diterjemahkan keledai adalah חמור – KHAMOR, Kata kuat diterjemahkan dari kata Ibrani גרם – GEREM dan kita dapat mearik pengertiannya disini bahwa Isakhar sepeti “keledai yang bertulang kuat”, bukan mengacu kepada hewan liar dan yang sangat bersemangat menarik perhatian penonton. Justru sebaliknya, istilah ini menujuk kepada seekor hewan beban yang berkekuatan besar yang tunduk kepada kuk yang menyakitkan tanpa mengeluh agar dapat bebas untuk beristirahat dengan nyaman.
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an Reguler